COPYRIGHT 1997, 1998 Paul O. Bartlett
Last Update: 1998.11.08.

(This document is incomplete and is subject
(to change or revision without notice. Some
(residual inconsistencies may remain.
(Full vocabulary has not yet been developed.)

 

frater2
=======

0. INTRODUCTION.
1. INFLECTIONS.
2. PRONOUNCIATION.
3. ORTHOGRAPHY.
4. ROOTS AND THEIR USES.
5. ARTICLES.
6. GENDER.
7. MODIFIERS (ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS).
8. NUMERICAL FORMS.
9. PRONOUNS.
10. TIME AND DATE.
11. VERBS.
12. INTERROGATIVES.
13. WORD ORDER.
14. CONDITIONALS.
15. COMPOUNDS.
16. VOCABULARY EXPANSION.
17. IDIOMS.
18. LISTS OF COMMON FUNCTION WORDS.



     ----------------------
     RULE 0.  INTRODUCTION.
     ----------------------

frater2 is a modification and enhancement of the proposed international auxiliary language FRATER (Lingua Sistemfrater) originally published in the following book:

Pham Xuan Thai
FRATER (LINGUA SISTEMFRATER)
TU-HAI Publishing House
88, Le-Van-Duyet Street
SAIGON, Republic of Vietnam
Copyright 1957

The writer of frater2 makes no claim whatever concerning the status or enforceability of any copyright in this work.

Briefly, frater2 differs from FRATER in the following ways:

1) Fuller exposition of the phonology and allowance of some variation in pronunciation of some consonants.

2) Change in the word accent rule.

3) Orthographic changes:

a) Primary use of lower-case letters only.
b) Punctuation specifications.
c) Allowance of the use of remaining Roman alphabet letters in foreign proper names.

4) Significant reworking of the verb system (based on the 1943 project Interglossa by Lancelot Hogben), including aspect and imperative, limitation of the number of verbs, and introduction of verb phrases in place of FRATER verbs. (The section on verbs needs to be expanded.)

5) Introduction of an interrogative particle and maintaining of normal word order in interrogative sentences.

6) Some changes in the personal pronouns and changes in some other functional words.

7) Minor changes in the number system.

8) Clarification of some syntactical constructions.

9) Clarification of compound words (including ANDRO/ANTROP exchange).

10) Miscellaneous small changes in grammar and usage.

11) More ample and re-ordered discussion of the rules in general.

12) Some changes in the basic vocabulary.

13) Removal of proper names from the basic word lists.

Although these rules sometimes use traditional, Latin-based terms for parts of speech, such usage is merely a convenience for describing different functions performed by words and do not reflect rigid categories, either in word structure or word usage. In frater2, a word may often be used in multiple parts of speech unchanged.

Some people may think that some of the expressions in frater2 seem to be long compared to their counterparts in other languages. There are two partial explanations for this phenomenon.

First, frater2 has only eighteen basic sounds, whereas many other languages have significantly more. For example, English has approximately forty basic sounds. With fewer basic sounds, frater2 has to use more instances of them to make many utterances.

Second, frater2 has a small base vocabulary relative to many natural languages. Therefore, it must make extensive use of compounds and qualifiers in order to say what some other languages say in a word or short phrase. These longer utterances are the price one pays for having a small number of basic sounds and a small base vocabulary to learn and use.

In the design of any constructed international auxiliary langauage, there are always trade-offs. If the base vocabulary is too small, then the language is too clumsy and circuitous for convenient use, circumlocution becomes burdensome, and precision is lacking. If the base vocabulary is too large, then adult learning and use become a problem.

Such a trade-off also occurs in the design of the words themselves. FRATER and frater2 were designed to use only some of the most common sounds in human languages, without using phonetic features such as tone and stress which are difficult for speakers of those languages which do not use such features. Of course, such designs are never perfect, simply because of the great variations in natural languages, and therefore no constructed language can be equally easy in all its features to everyone.

Also, frater2 contains some closed syllables and consonant clusters, features which are not strong in some natural language and which therefore may pose some difficulty for speakers of such languages. Again, it is a matter of a trade-off, maintaining some awareness of the Greco-Latin origin of much of the general vocabulary at the expense of phonetic features more difficult for some people.


     ---------------------
     RULE 1.  INFLECTIONS.
     ---------------------

In frater2, words undergo no inflection or agglutination of any kind for any purpose. (The different forms of personal pronouns are not inflections, because the so-called plurals are not really multiple instances of the so-called singulars in the first and second persons.) frater2 is entirely an analytical language.

Normally the syntax of a sentence will determine which words are used as substantives. A given word may sometimes be used as either a substantive or modifier as meaning and common sense allow. However, in an ambiguous situation, the particle GU may be placed immediately before a substantive as a marker.


     -----------------------
     RULE 2.  PRONUNCIATION.
     -----------------------

Rule 2a. General.

frater2 uses unaccented letters of the Roman alphabet to represent its sounds. Alphabetical order is standard.

Rule 2b. Stress.

frater2 words and sentences may be spoken with uniform stress and tone. Optionally, one may place a light stress accent on the vowel before the last consonant of a word (where applicable). Stress and tone are never semantically significant.

Rule 2c. Vowels.

frater2 has five pure vowels, designated A E I O U, as follows:

     A : low back unrounded         (English approx.: fAther)
     E : lower-mid front unrounded  (English approx.: pEt)
     I : high front unrounded       (English approx.: machIne)
     O : upper-mid back rounded     (English approx.: nOte)
     U : high back rounded          (English approx.: rUle)

Note that these are pure vowels. English-speakers, in particular, should take care not to turn them into diphthongs, nor to reduce them in unstressed syllables.

There are no diphthongs in the language. If two vowels occur in juxtaposition, pronounce them separately and distinctly. See also Rule 2e.

Rule 2d. Consonants.

There are thirteen consonants, as follows (note that stops may be either unaspirated or aspirated):

     B : bilabial stop, voiced
     D : dental or alveolar stop, voiced
     F : labio-dental or bilabial fricative, unvoiced
     G : velar stop, voiced
     J : linguo-alveolar fricative, voiced (sibilant)
     K : velar stop, unvoiced
     L : linguo-alveolar lateral
     M : bilabial nasal, voiced
     N : dental or alveolar nasal, voiced
     P : bilabial stop, unvoiced
     R : linguo-palatal retroflex glide or trill
     S : linguo-alveolar fricative, unvoiced (sibilant)
     T : dental or alveolar stop, unvoiced

A few consonants allow slight variations in pronunciation (indicated in the descriptions above by "or"). However, these variations exist only to accommodate persons learning the language. In each instance the first alternative is the preferred pronunciation.

Rule 2e. Glottal stop.

In case of a fortuitous juxtaposition of vowels (especially but not exclusively at word boundaries), it is permissible to insert an optional glottal stop between the vowels. The glottal stop has no phonemic or semantic identity of its own.

Rule 2f. Names of letters.

The name of a vowel letter is its sound. The name of a consonant is the sound of the letter plus 'O'.

Rule 2g. Doubled consonants.

In the event that a consonant is fortuitously juxtaposed with itself (doubled consonant), the doubled consonant is pronounced as a slightly prolonged single consonant.


     ---------------------
     RULE 3.  ORTHOGRAPHY.
     ---------------------

Rule 3a. Phoneticity.

In writing, every letter represents precisely one sound, and every sound has precisely one letter representation.

Rule 3b. General rules on case.

In general, write running frater2 text entirely in upper-case or lower-case letters, most commonly in lower-case. Capitalization is almost never necessary. On rare occasion, a back tick (`) before a word can call attention to it in some way, such as a proper name which might otherwise be confused in writing with a common noun. Words may be written entirely in upper-case to set them apart in a discussion, such as in these rules.

Rule 3c. Punctuation.

1) End a sentence with either a period (.) or a slash (/); for example, in hasty cursive writing, some writers may prefer a slash for clarity.

2) There is no question or interrogative mark, as the component words of a sentence are what make it an interrogative.

3) There is no emphatic or exclamation punctuation mark, as the emphatic particle within the sentence makes the sentence or some part of it emphatic.

4) Use a period to set off large integers in groups of three digits (written numerically); use a comma to indicate the decimal point.

5) Generally, in writing, a comma represents a slight pause in speaking, such as setting off major parts of a sentences or distinguishing members of a list.

a) When using commas to set off members of a list, place a comma before the last member of the list, also. If one or more members of a comma-delimited list contains(s) one more commas, it is permissible to set off the members of the list with semicolons to avoid ambiguity in writing.

b) Set off a clause from the rest of its sentence with a comma or commas.

6) A comma sets off a vocative expression at the beginning or end of a sentence.

7) To set off quotations, use any of several internationally recognized sets of punctuation marks, such as single or double quotation marks or guillemets, as long as the usage is unambiguous and consistent; in some contexts, writing a word in all upper-case letters, in contrast to the standard lower-case, may serve to mark the word or phrase as quoted. (See also Rule 13n.)

8) Parentheses and brackets conform to common international usage.

9) A hyphen may signal a break in a word at the end of a line and its continuation on the next line.

10) Experience and consensus may set common usages for some punctuation marks, but the intention is not to multiply the use of punctuation marks beyond genuine necessity.

Rule 3d. Foreign names and words.

1) If conforming a foreign proper name to the phonology and orthography of frater2 would cause an unacceptable distortion in the written form of the name, frater2 allows retention of the remaining letters of the Roman alphabet, namely, C H Q V W X Y Z, for the purpose of writing such names more accurately. However, frater2 does not define the pronunciation of those eight letters, nor does it define the pronunciation of any letters bearing diacritical marks.

2) Foreign words which are not proper names, if they are formed or can be formed from roots existing in frater2, change their form to conform to the phonology and word structure of the language.


     ------------------------------
     RULE 4.  ROOTS AND THEIR USES.
     ------------------------------

Rule 4a.

Nouns, adjectives, and (many) adverbs have the same root and undergo no changes to mark differences in use. Nouns, noun phrases (groups of words which can function as if they were nouns), and pronouns may be referred to collectively as substantives.

Rule 4b.

Most, although not all, roots in frater2 derive from Greek and Latin and have been chosen for their occurrence in words of relatively widespread internationality. However, there have been changes in many of them to conform to frater2's phonology and orthography.

Rule 4c.

Some of the common phonetic/orthographic changes applied to Greek and Latin source words are as follows (common English representations on the left, frater2 on the right):

     CH --> S
      H --> 
      J --> J {/dZ/ --> /z/}
     QU --> K
     SH --> S
     TH --> T
      V --> B {most frequently; occasionally F}
      X --> S {sometimes KS or SK}
     ZH --> J {/Z/ --> /z/}

(Note that the sound /z/ is represented by the letter J. When C has the sound /s/ in common rather than classical speech, it is represented by S. G which is often pronounced "soft" {/dZ/ -or- /Z/} in some European languages is always pronounced "hard" {/g/} in frater2.)


     ------------------
     RULE 5.  ARTICLES.
     ------------------

There is neither definite nor indefinite article. If it is necessary to point out or designate some specific person, thing, or idea, use a demonstrative. (Often this is not as necessary as native speakers of languages with articles might think.)


     ----------------
     RULE 6.  GENDER.
     ----------------

Words have no grammatical gender. The roots GINE and ANDRO may designate a person, animal, or plant by explicit sex where applicable.


     --------------------------------------------
     RULE 7.  MODIFIERS (ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS).
     --------------------------------------------

Rule 7a.

Modifiers follow the word or words they modify in decreasing order of significance. Usually a modifier modifies the word it immediately follows unless the context makes clear otherwise or the disambiguating prepositions MU and TO appear. There is no intrinsic distinction between adverbs and adjectives such as is known in some languages. As a convenience, these rules may refer to certain words and phrases as "adverbs" using conventional terminology; such words and phrases are modifiers which ordinarily modify other than individual nouns or pronouns.

Rule 7b.

When the compared object is not mentioned, the comparison is not expressed in frater2:
KIA MAGA. Which is bigger? (The copula JUGE may be elided.)

Rule 7c.

JE indicates comparison of equality (as..as):
MENSA NI JUGE MAGA JE OT MI. Your table is as big as mine.
(In this instance, OT indicates possession by MI, which would be expressed in English by "mine" or in French by "le mien.")

Rule 7d.

PLUS indicates the comparison of superiority (more; more..than):
KANI DIS JUGE JUBE. This dog is young.
KANI NA JUGE JUBE PLUS. That dog is younger.
DOM MI JUGE MAGA PLUS OT NI (DOM). My house is bigger than yours.
MI LOGE BELO PLUS NI. I speak more rapidly than you.

Rule 7e.

PLUSNO indicates the comparison of inferiority (less; less..than):
KUP MIS JUGE KOMPLE PLUSNO OT LIS (KUP). Our cup is less full than theirs.
KANI NOBLE PLUSNO KAT. The dog is less noble than the cat.
(Note the allowable omision of the copula JUGE in unambiguous cases.)

Rule 7f. PLASUNI indicates the superlative of superiority (most):
KAT JUGE JO NOBLE PLASUNI. The cat is the most noble animal.

Rule 7g. PLASUNINO indicates the superlative of inferiority (least):
LI JUGE GINE ORDERKON PLUSUNINO, MI KONES KE. She is the least coordinated woman that I know.

Rule 7h.

TELE indicates the absolute superlative (very):
IPO JUGE BELO TELE. The horse is very fast.


     -------------------------
     RULE 8.  NUMERICAL FORMS.
     -------------------------

If there is no numerical form or any other way, including context, to indicate that a word is and must be regarded as plural, use the modifier POLI. However, there is no plural form of words, plurality being indicated by other words or by context; consequently, use of POLI is frequently unnecessary and should not be used if any other word or phrase indicates plurality or if specification of number is not significant.

frater2 uses the decimal system of numeration.

         NUL     0     DEKA    10
         UNI     1     SENTI   100
         BI      2     MIL     1000
         TRI     3     MIRIA   10.000
         TETRA   4     LAK     100.000
         PENTA   5     MILION  1.000.000
         SES     6     MILIAR  1.000.000.000
         SEP     7     BILION  1.000.000.000.000
         OKA     8
         NONA    9

As a matter of convenience or euphony, it is permissible to elide the I from UNI if the I is the last sound of the word or compound.

Larger numbers are specified in a form similar to international scientific notation: a multiplier times a power of ten; for example,

73.000.000.000.000.000 SEP BIRGUL TRI MULTI DEKA FORSE DEKASES

Form multiples of ten and hundred by juxtaposition:

         BIDEKA        BISENTI
         TRIDEKA       TRISENTI
         TETRADEKA     TETRASENTI
         PENTADEKA     PENTASENTI
         SESDEKA       SESSENTI
         SEPDEKA       SEPSENTI
         OKADEKA       OKASENTI
         NONADEKA      NONASENTI

Units are appended in larger numbers. For example:

         DEKAUNI    11     BIDEKATRI     23
         DEKAPENTA  15     TETRADEKASEP  47
         DEKAOKA    18     NONADEKABI    92

For larger numbers, for clarity make slight pauses or hesitations when speaking and insert hyphens when writing (if not using numerals).

For numbers larger than one thousand, specify the number of thousands in terms of smaller units.

         DEKATETRA-MIL SESSENTI-BIDEKA-UNI  14.621
         TETRASENTI-BIDEKA-NONA-MILION SEPSENTI-OKA-MIL SENTI-BIDEKA-BI
           429.708.122

Numbers with decimal fractions may be read in either of three ways:

1.234,5.678

a) Simply by naming the digits and the decimal point:

UNI BI TRI TETRA BIRGUL PENTA SES SEP OKA

b) By naming the two parts of the number with UNISURDEKA OT (literally, "of tenths," a special idiom to indicate a decimal fraction) preceding the fractional part:

MIL BISENTI-TRIDEKA-TETRA UNISURDEKA OT PENTA-MIL SESSENTI SEPDEKA-OKA

c) A combination method, naming the whole part in the conventional way and listing the numerals after the decimal point:

MIL BISENTI-TRIDEKA-TETRA BIRGUL PENTA SES SEP OKA

An ordinal number begins with the particle SER. (Think of the particle as modifying a substantive with ordinality and the number modifying the particle with the numerical degree or ordinality.)

Form multiplicative numbers by adding TEM to the cardinal numbers:

         BITEM   double
         SESTEM  sextuple

Form fractional numbers by compounding UNISUR (one above) with the cardinal number.

         UNISURBI                   a half
         UNISURPENTA                a fifth
         UNISUROKA                  an eighth
         DEKATETRA UNISURBIDEKATRI  fourteen twenty-thirds (14/23)

Hyphens may be inserted between components for clarity in writing.
BIDEKA-OKA UNISUR SENTI-TETRADEKA-NONA (28/149) twenty-eight one hundred forty-ninths

Large fractions with long verbal expressions may commonly be written with numerals.

Form collective numbers by adding PER (by) to the cardinal numbers.

TARIF JUGE BIDEKA DOLAR PER SENTI. The price is twenty dollars a hundred.

Because nouns, adjectives, and adverbs can have the same root, cardinal numbers can also be substantives with a collective sense.

         UNI      a unity
         DEKABI   a dozen
         BIDEKA   a score
         MIL      a thousand (of something)

In case of ambiuguity, the number can be prefixed to GRUP, as in:

BIDEKAGRUP a score


     ------------------
     RULE 9.  PRONOUNS.
     ------------------

Rule 9a. Personal pronouns.

     MI   I, me                      MIS   we, us (including you)
                                     MUS   we, us (not including you)
     NI   you (singular)             NIS   you (plural)
     LI   he, she, it, him, her      LIS   they, them

     ANTROP  one, they, person
     AFTO    self (reflexive)  {modified from AUTO after the manner of
                               {Greek to avoid a diphthong in a common
                               {word}

In a sentence in which the subject is third person (a noun or noun phrase, LI, or LIS) and AFTO occurs in, as, or modifying the object of the verb or a word or group of words which completes the meaning, AFTO refers to the subject of the verb. Another third person pronoun refers to other than the subject.

A personal pronoun can show possession by placing OT between the pronoun and the word it modifies (and follows). If the context makes the meaning clear, it is often sufficient to follow the word indicating what is possessed merely by the pronoun.

Rule 9b. Other pronouns.

Rule 9b1. Relative.

KE who/which/what. The subject of a clause used in the place of or as a modifier; refers to something in the part of the sentence outside the clause itself. If it is necessary to specify that KE refers to a person in an ambiguous situation, use KE ANTROP. KE can also be the object of the verb of the clause if the object refers to something in the rest of the sentence.

Rule 9b2. Demonstrative.

Demonstrative pronouns may also be used as modifiers.

         DIS    this/here   (near)
         NA     that/there  (not far away)
         ILIK   that/yonder (further away)

Rule 9b3. Reciprocal.

ALO Each other.

Rule 9b4. Null.

KO <null> (no meaning: see verb rule for passives)


     ------------------------
     RULE 10.  TIME AND DATE.
     ------------------------

Rule 10a.

In responses to questions as to what is the date or time, ES may appear alone without an explicit subject.

Rule 10b. Time.

The word TEM (time) itself may indicate that an expression is a specification of time. frater2 specifies time by a twenty-four hour clock. In writing the time, separate the hours and minutes with a period; for example, 17.30, five-thirty P.M.

TEM ES KIA. What time is it?

Normally in specifying the time, it is sufficient to give the number of hours followed by the number of minutes (and then seconds, if necessary). One may optionally use the words ORA (hour), MINUT (minute), and SEKUN (second). Use TEMOPTIK (o'clock) to specify a certain time of day rather than the lapse of a certain number of hours.

     ES TETRA TEMOPTIK.         It is four o'clock (A.M.).
     ES DEKABI BIDEKA.          It is twelve twenty P.M.
     ES SEP ORA DEKASES MINUT.  It is sixteen minutes after seven.

     ANTENO TRI ORA.            After (the elapse of) three hours.
     ANTENO TRI TEMOPTIK.       After (the time of day of) three o'clock.

Rule 10c. Date.

DAT (date) indicates a date specification.

When writing a date numerically, use the form YYYY.MM.DD or YYYY/MM/DD; for example, 1995.02.14 or 1995/02/14 for February 14, 1995.

DAT ES KIA. What is the date?

Days of the week are named by numbering them with JUR from Sunday; for example, JURPENTA, Thursday.

Similarly, months are named by numbering them with MENSE (ordinarily): MENSESEP, July. MENSE represents Gregorian or similar calendar months; LUNA represents lunar months (such as with the Hebrew or Islamic calendars).

GINE JUGE MORTA DAT 13 MENSEDEKAUNI 1956. The woman died on November 13, 1956.


     ----------------
     RULE 11.  VERBS.
     ----------------

Rule 11a. Verb set.

(Much of the verb structure of frater2 is modified from the
(1943 project Interglossa by the late Lancelot Hogben. This
(section requires amplification.)

The set of verbs is small and fixed. All other verbal concepts are expressed by means of one of these fixed verbs together with modifiers. All verbs end in -e (except ES), although non-verbs may also end in -e. In a phrase consisting of a verb and one or more modifiers, if there are particles with the verb, they follow the verb and precede the modifier(s). The list of verbs is as follows:

     ABE       have; possess (property, goods, or characteristic)
     ACTE      do; perform; behave; act
     AKUSTE    hear
     DONE      give, confer, furnish, provide
     ES        be (existential)
     ESPEDE    dispatch; send; throw; cast
     FACTE     make; constuct; manufacture; devise; produce;
               bring into occurrence or being
     GARDE     keep (tr.); maintain; retain; sustain; conserve
     GENE      get; acquire; receive
     IDE       function or act mentally or spiritually (trans./intrans.)
     JUGE      is (copulative)
     KINE      go; come; move (intrans.)
     LOGE      say; tell; communicate; express
     MOTE      shift; remove; move (trans.); put; place; set
     OPTE      see; look at
     PERDE     lose; forfeit
     REACTE    heed; respond to; react with
     SENTE     experience; feel (includes senses other than vision and
               hearing)
     STIMULE   evoke; excite; stimulate; influence
     TRACTE    draw; pull; take
     UREKE     find (out); discover; detect

Note that frater2 uses separate verbs for functions commonly subsumed by the verb "to be" in English:

JUGE (from an ancient root for "yoke") is a simple copula to link as if joining or equating the meanings of the subject of a clause and a substantative or modifier which follows the verb. (In some cases the copula may be omitted when there is no ambiguity.)

ES asserts the existence of something or someone.

ABE expresses the possession of some property, goods, or characteristic. For example, in English one might say, "She is so-many centimeters tall." In frater2, one would say, "She has so-many centimeters of height."

For English expressions which assign or assert a description as in "She is twelve years old," in frater2 this would commonly be expressed as having a condition or status, as in LI ABE DEKABI ANU. Similarly, "I am 178 cm. tall" would be MI ABE 178 CM. OT LEBAN (I have 178 cm. of height). (Note the use of of the possessive OT here: the height is possessing the measure of it.)

Rule 11b. Special modifiers.

Modifiers in the following list may be used to modify or refine the meaning of a verb in addition to the use of other modifiers. These special modifiers follow any particles and precede any other modifiers.

     ALEGRO     like to, delight to
     DEBI       ought to, should
     DESIR      want to, wish to, would like to
     INERGO     may (possible)
     KOMEN      begin to, start to
     OBLIGA     must
     OPTIKOMO   seem to
     OPTIMA     hope to
     PERMIT     may, be allowed to
     POTO       can (be able to)
     USA        used to
     PREPARA    be about to
     STOP       cease to
     STOPNE     continue to
     TENDO      intend to
     FORSEAFTO  try to

Rule 11c. Tense particles.

Particles denoting tense, aspect, and imperative are used only when other words and context do not make the verb's characteristic clear. Native speakers of languages which habitually indicate tense or aspect in all or nearly all cases should take particular care not to do so as a matter of habit in frater2. Particles follow the verb and may be in any order which conveys the intended meaning, although NE, if present, usually occurs last, and FI immediately follows the verb. (See below for FI.)

     PAS      Past.
     TEMPLU   Future.
     SITU     Conditional.

Rule 11d. Aspect particles.

     TEL      Perfective.
     TELNO    Imperfective.

The imperfective particle denotes a state or action which is continuous, repetitive, habitual, ongoing, incomplete, or unfinished. The perfective particle denotes a state or action which is complete, finished, singular or unitary in its being or occurrence, concluded, or having achieved a result or end. Finer distinctions of the aspect of a verb are made with modifiers if such distinctions should be necessary. (Often they are not.)

Rule 11e. Imperative particle.

Use FAK after a verb to form its imperative in an ambiguous situation. Subject personal pronouns are permissible.

Rule 11f. Transitivity

frater2 verbs are not inherently transitive or intransitive. The transitivity of a verb in actual use depends on meaning and common sense. If a verb could be either transitive or intransitive and the context does not make the transitivity clear, use the particle FI immediately after the verb to designate specifically the intransitive use.

Rule 11g. Objects.

A direct object is the goal or result of the action of a verb. It is a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase which follows the verb.

An indirect object is the secondary goal of the action of a verb. It expresses to or for whom or which or on whose behalf the action of the verb occurs. It is always introduced by one of the prepositions A, PRO, or PROS and follows the direct object.

Rule 11h. Other verb forms.

Gerund : INTEM (after the verb but before other modifiers)

Passive : There is no passive construction as such. One may use an impersonal construction with ANTROP as subject, or, if even that will not serve, one may use the null pronoun KO to indicate that the object receives the action of the verb without specifying any subject or agent.

Alternatively, in many cases one may use the reflexive pronoun AFTO to convert an actual or implied passive form: "The book is (found) on the table" becomes BIBLO DONE UREKE AFTO EPI MENSA (literally, "the book confers finding itself on the table"). Of course, one could rephrase the sentence as BIBLO ABE PLAS EPI MENSA ("the book has place on the table"), which is a preferable construction.

The modifer TA may be compounded to the end of a verb to convert it into a modifier with passive meaning of having come or been placed into a state of being or characteristic. In writing, one may attach TA to the verb with a hyphen.

Example. FAG eat. FAG-TA eaten.

Rule 11i. Indirect speech or reporting.

Frequently the verb in a clause of indirect speech or reporting requires no further specification. However, any further specification given to the verb is from the context or point of view of the indirect speech or reporting itself, not of the main clause.


     -------------------------
     RULE 12.  INTERROGATIVES.
     -------------------------

Rule 12a.

To form a simple yes-no question from a direct statement, preface the statement with the interrogative particle TI.

Rule 12b.

Form other questions with the use of interrogative particles, which are compounds with KIA (what?):

         KIA         what?
         PROKIA      why?
         ANTROPKIA   who?
         JOKIA       which (animal)?
         STOFKIA     which (other than person or animal)?
         FAKTOKIA    how? (in what way or by what means?)
         MULTIKIA    how much?; how many?
         TEMKIA      when?
         PLASKIA     where?

In sentences with the -KIA interrogative words, the normal word order of Subject - Verb - Object/Complement remains, and the interrogative word keeps its normal, functional position in the sentence.


     ---------------------
     RULE 13.  WORD ORDER.
     ---------------------

See also Rule 7. MODIFIERS. and Rule 11. VERBS. for additional information on word order.

Rule 13a.

frater2 has a basic Subject-plus-Predicate sentence structure. Except in poetry and for literary stylistic purposes, the invariant word order is Subject - Verb - Object/Complement, with any modifers pertaining to each. (But see Rule 13b.) When an imperative verb has a second person subject, the subject may be omitted. The copulative verb JUGE may be omitted in unambiguous contexts, such as when a modifier after the copula describes the subject.

Rule 13b.

Notwithstanding other rules, if the object of a verb is not a clause, one may place FE before the object in two circumstances:

1) To avoid ambiguity as to what precisely the object is;

2) To move the object out of the normal Subject - Verb - Object word order.

Rule 13c.

A clause is a group of words which contains at least a subject (which may be implied) and a verb and which serves in the place of and for the function of a noun or a modifier. Standard word order holds in a clause. A clause occupies the same position in a sentence as a noun or a modifier. To avoid ambiguity, MA may introduce a noun clause.

Rule 13d.

A clause which substitutes for or serves as a modifer normally begins with KE (or occasionally, KE ANTROP) as its subject if the subject of the clause refers to something in the rest of the sentence. KE can also be the object of the verb of the clause and refer to something in the rest of the sentence, in which case KE retains its normal order within the clause.

Rule 13e.

If a clause serves the function of a noun within a sentence, no special word begins the clause. However, it is set off with a slight pause of the voice in speaking and a comma in writing.

Rule 13f.

If a sentence contains another word with a negative meaning, the modifier NE is omitted after the verb.

Rule 13g.

The emphatic particle SO may be variously placed within a sentence to emphasize different components of the sentence; placed at the beginning, it makes the whole sentence emphatic.

Rule 13h.

When two words or phrases occur in apposition, the word or phrase designating the general meaning comes first, followed by the word or phrase complementing or supplementing the meaning of the first. If the second word or phrase expresses a close relationship, completing the meaning of the first, it follows with no punctuation. If the second word or phrase supplements the meaning of the first in a manner looser than completing its meaning, the second word or phrase is set off with commas.

Rule 13i.

The verb ES, with or without particles and preceded or not by modifiers which modify the clause or sentence as a whole, may be used without a subject to express the generic existence or occurrence of what follows the verb.

ES BIBLO EPI MENSA. There is a book on the table.

Rule 13j.

Similarly, some verb phrases (such as, but not limited to, those expressing states of weather) may be used impersonally without a subject to express some state or condition when the subject is unknown, impersonal, or irrelevant.

FAKTE PLUBI. It is raining.
SENTE OPTIKOMO PROS MI, FAKTE IDROJELE. It seems to me that it is snowing.

Rule 13k.

The particle I introduces a vocative expression at the beginning or ending of an utterance.

Rule 13l.

In a complex utterance in which it is unclear which modifers apply to which words, the disambiguating prepositions MU and TO can help make the meaning clear without having to recast the phrase or clause entirely. MU designates that the modifier or modifier phrase which follows it applies to the word or phrase immediately preceding MU. TO designates that the word or phrase modified is prior to the one immediately preceding TO. In general, however, it is better to recast a phrase or clause in a different arrangement of words or in different words to avoid these amibiguities, as MU and TO may not always be able to resolve all such ambiguities.

     SAMBER INFAN MIKRO.     Little child's room.
                             (Is the child little, or the room?)

     SAMBER INFAN MU MIKRO.  Room of a little child.

     SAMBER INFAN TO MIKRO.  Little room of a child.
                             (This latter might better be recast as
                             SAMBER MIKRO OT INFAN, but it
                             illustrates the point.)

     DOMSTUDI INFANGINE MIKRO BEL.     Pretty little girls' school.
                                       (What is little; what is pretty?)
     DOMSTUDI INFANGINE MU MIKRO BEL.  (The girls are little.)
     DOMSTUDI INFANGINE TO MIKRO BEL.  (The school is little.)

     Note that it is still ambiguous what is pretty: the girls or
     the school.  In such a case it is better to recast the phrase.

     DOMSTUDI INFANGINE BEL TO MIKRO.  (The little girls are pretty; TO
                                       indicates that MIKRO modifies
                                       something before BEL; therefore,
                                       the girls are little, not only a
                                       little bit pretty, as they would
                                       be if TO were not present.)

     DOMSTUDI INFANGINE BEL MU MIKRO.  (The girls are not necessarily
                                       little but are a little bit
                                       pretty; ordinarily MU could be
                                       omitted here according to the rule
                                       that a modifier modifies the preceding
                                       word, but MU prevents
                                       ambiguity.)

     DOMSTUDI MIKRO OT INFANGINE BEL.     Little school for pretty girls.
     DOMSTUDI BEL OT INFANGINE MIKRO.     Pretty school for little girls.
     DOMSTUDI OT INFANGINE MIKRO TO BEL.  School for pretty little girls.

Rule 13m.

In a clause containing an indirect quotation, which is a quotation of the meaning of an utterance without reproduction of its exact words, the time reference within the clause is that of the original utterance, not that of the rest of the sentence in which the clause occurs.

Rule 13n.

In an ambiguous situation, introduce a direct quotation with the conjunctive particle BA. In some instances in writing, use of BA may render unnecessary use of quotation punctuation marks (for example, when a direct quotation is introduced by BA and continues to the end of the sentence and it is clear that any subsequent sentence is not part of the quotation).


     -----------------------
     RULE 14.  CONDITIONALS.
     -----------------------

Rule 14a. Ordinary.

Introduce the protasis of an ordinary conditional sentence with SI.

Rule 14b. Contrary to fact.

Introduce the protasis of a conditional sentence expressing a condition contrary to fact with AN.

Rule 14c. Main clause (apodosis).

Introduce the apodosis of either type of conditional sentence with JE; however, JE may be omitted is the sense is clear.

Rule 14d. Tense and aspect.

If it is necessary to express either tense or aspect or both in a conditional sentence, the primary point of view in the sentence is that of the protasis, and any expression of tense or aspect in the apodosis is relative to that of the protasis.


     --------------------
     RULE 15.  COMPOUNDS.
     --------------------

Rule 15a.

Compound words are a key to effective use of the vocabulary. Even functional words which may be primary words in themselves in many other languages, for example, may be compound words in frater2. There are no semantic affixes as such, compound elements taking their place.

Rule 15b.

Compounds consist of the simple juxtaposition of root words. The root of most significant, elementary, or basic meaning comes first, followed by roots which modify, qualify, or refine the meaning of the root in order of decreasing degree of modification, qualification, or refinement. Sometimes a compound taken as a unit in itself will have a meaning not precisely that of the sum of its constituents.

Example. KONTENOPTIKTELE television (box-vision-far).

Note that the order of modifiers and the order of roots in compounds is just the opposite of the normal order in some languages. Native speakers of such languages will require care and practice to use the correct order in frater2.

(NOTE: In the original FRATER, there were many compounds with ANDRO to designate a person of some description or characteristic, regardless of whether the individual might be male or female. However, ANDRO is basically a male-denoting word. Therefore, in such compounds the word ANTROP is substituted, which has the neutral meaning of "human being." If a compound with ANTROP and a following root beginning with a consonant cause an unpleasant or undesirable consonant cluster, it is permissible to elide the 'P' from ANTROP in pronunciation.)

Rule 15c.

In general, the particle NE designates simple negation of meaning. To specify actual opposition of meaning, rather than just simple negation, use NO.

Rule 15d.

STA as the first element of a compound indicates a state or characteristic specified by the remaining elements of the compound. STA may also be used to express abstract notions.

Example. LEUKO white. STALEUKO whiteness.

Rule 15e.

In written text, it is permissible to place a hyphen between the elements of a compound, but it is not necessary to do so.


     -------------------------------
     RULE 16.  VOCABULARY EXPANSION.
     -------------------------------

Rule 16a.

See Rule 3d. for the rule governing foreign proper names. For words other than proper names, whenever possible form new words from compounds of existing roots.

Rule 16b.

If it is not feasible or practical to form a new word as a compound, then take one of two courses in descending order:

1) If there are Greek or Latin roots in widespread use which individually or in compounds can express the needed meaning, adopt those roots or compounds of roots, adapting them to the phonology and orthography of frater2;

2) If there are no such roots, then if there is a word or word-form in international or widespread currency that expresses the needed meaning, then adopt such word, adapting it to the phonology and orthography of frater2.


     -----------------
     RULE 17.  IDIOMS.
     -----------------

frater2 has no idioms of its own. Avoid word for word for word translations of idioms from national, regional, or local languages. To do so requires great care at first, as many persons do not recognize that expressions which seem quite natural to them are in fact idiomatic. This rule does not prohibit figurative use of language for literary purposes.


     -----------------------------------------
     RULE 18.  LISTS OF COMMON FUNCTION WORDS.
     -----------------------------------------

NOTE. Distinctions between adverbs and prepositions are not always rigid, and some words may serve as either, depending on usage and context.

     MODIFIERS AND PREPOSITIONS.
     ===========================

     A             to, toward
     A PAR         along, alongside
     ABENE         without, lacking
     AD            near
     ANA           away from
     ANTE          before (in time)
     ANTEBSERA     day before yesterday
     ANTENO        after (in time)
     ANTENO TEM OT since, from the time of
     ANTENOSAFTRA  day after tomorrow
     ANTENOTEM     late
     ANTETEM       soon
     ANTI          against, in opposition to, across from, opposite
     APUD          at (location, place)
     APUD MEDI OT  amid, amidst, in the middle of
     ASUB          down
     ASUBNO        up
     BELO          quickly, rapidly
     BELONO        slowly
     BEN           well
     BENNO         badly
     BSERA         yesterday
     DESIRNE       in spite of
     DIA           through, across
     DURA          during, while
     EKS           out, outside (of)
         EKS OT    out of, (from), by (e.g., authorship)
     EPI           on, upon
     EPI A         onto
     EPINO         off, off of
     FIA           by means of, by way of
     FIA PLUS      in addition to
     GU            <substantive marker>
     I             <vocative particle>
     IA            yes
     ILIK          at a distance, yonder
     IN            in, within, inside of
     IN A          into
     IN PLAS OT    in place of, instead of
     INTER         between, among
     JE            also, then, thus; as
     JURBEL        some day
     JURTUTA       always
     KAK           how
     KIRKU         around (space), about (space, location)
     KOMPLE        quite, enough
     KON           with, accompanied by
     KONSERNO KON  despite, contrary to
     KONTENNE      except, besides, other than
     LOKO          in place of, in exchange for, in lieu of
     LONGANE       shortly
     LONGAPLUSNE   no longer
     META          beyond, past (not necessarily temporally)
     MU            <general disambiguating particle for one
                      modifier to modify another word or phrase
                      immediately preceding>
     MULTI         much, many, more than one
     MULTIEKS      too
     MULTIMETRI    how much, how many
     NA            there, over there
     NATUR         of course
     NE            no, not (simple negation)
     NE JE         not even
     NE OT TUTA    not at all
     NE RE         not yet
     NE UNI        not only
     NO            <opposite>
     OB            thanks to, because, due to
     OT            of, from (connotes possession or a relationship of
                      quasi-possession or origin; certain constructions
                      with OT are quasi-idiomatic)
     OT PLUS       besides
     OT TEM A TEM  now and then
     PAR           beside, at the side of, next to
     PAS           already
     PER           by
     PERI          about, concerning, with regard to; than
     PLAS          where
     PLASNUL       nowhere
     PLASOMONE     elsewhere
     PLASTUTA      anywhere, wherever
     PLUS          more
     PLUSNO        less
     POLI          <optional plurality marker>
     POSTE         after (in space), behind
     POSTENO       before (in space), in front of
     PRO           on behalf of, for, in favor of
     PROKIA        why
     PROMULTI      however
     PROS          with respect to, with reference to
     RARE          rare(ly), seldom
     RE            again
     SAFTRA        tomorrow
     SEKUEN        according to, accordingly
     SEKUR         certainly, no doubt
     SO            <emphatic particle>
     SUB           below, under, beneath
     SUR           above, over
     SURA          till, until
     SURAGRI       immediately, as soon as
     SURTUTA       especially, particularly
     TAK           such, so
     TELE          very, far
     TELENE        near
     TELENETUTA    almost
     TEM           time, when
     TEMDIS        now, just
         OT TEMDIS ANTE  from now on
     TEMMULTI      often
     TEMNUL        never
     TEMPALEO      formerly
     TO            <general disambiguating particle for one
                      modifier to modify another word or phrase
                      not immediately preceding>
     UNI           only
     UNINE ANA     separate from, apart from
     UNITEM        once


     CONJUNCTIONS.
     =============

     AN           if (condition contrary to fact)
     BENKIA       (al)though, even
     BA           <introduces a direct quotation>
     DURA         during, while
     E            and
     E..E         both..and
     E..O         either..or
     JE           then; as
     KON          with
     KON KONDISION OT  on condition that
     MA           <introduces a noun clause>
     NE..NE       neither..nor
     O            or
     OB           because
     OMO SI       as if
     OB FOBO PERI for fear of, for fear that, lest
     PRO          for, in order that, in order to
     PROSTA       therefore
     SED          but
     SI           if (ordinary condition)
     SINE         if not
     SURAGRI      as soon as
     UNI          only


     {Total distinguishable verbs, special modifiers, and simple
     {functional and numeric words listed in these Rules:
     {approximately 200.  The general vocabulary consists almost
     {entirely of substantives and modifiers.}