A Latin-Based International
Auxiliary Language

    Latinvlo is based on, but is not identical with, an auxiliary language entitled The Master Language, published privately in the U.S.A. in 1907 by Stephen Chase Houghton. Some of Houghton's original wording is retained in this document, and he receives due credit, even though his work is now out of copyright. The primary motivation behind Latinvlo was to deal with some inconsistencies, ambiguities, and shortcomings in the original work.

    The vocabulary of Latinvlo derives from that of Latin (and some Latinized Greek), but in a schematic way. The advantage of this vocabulary is that two-way dictionaries for Latin already exist for many languages, so that there is no need to create separate vocabulary lists for learners. The syntax derives in part from that of English, although not strictly so. Because Latinvlo is based on Indo-European languages of Western Europe, it is intended to be most familiar to (and easiest to learn by) modern speakers of such languages.

    (An annotated copy of the original Master Language is available at this :link:.)

    (An unmodified, non-searchable, photographic-type PDF copy of the original book is available at this :link: ~19MB.)


Preliminary Remarks
Pronunciation, Spelling, and Punctuation
Numerical Forms
Concluding Remarks
Primary Adverbs Table
Prepositions Table
Conjunctions Table
Specimen Texts

    1. The words of this language are adopted or derived from Latin or Greek (the latter, except for proper names, usually in Latinized form). Some proper names and technical terms may be unassimilated (see Syntax section below).

    2. All words of classical Latin, and words of medieval, modern, or law Latin from which words of modern Romance languages have been derived, may be bases of words in this language.

    3. Greek derivatives relate chiefly to the arts and sciences.

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    4. The letters of the alphabet are twenty-one in number. They are:
a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, v, x, and z.
J, k, u, w, and y, as well as accented forms of any letters of the alphabet, may be used in unassimilated foreign words and names.

    5. The language has twenty-six basic sounds (including the diphthongs ae, av, and oe), with i and v having two sounds each depending on their positions within words.

    6. All letters are pronounced as in the Classical pronunciation of Latin. A is pronounced as in father, e like a in made, i as a vowel like e in me, o as in no, v as a vowel like oo in noon. (Speakers should use care not to pronounce these vowels as diphthongs, as many English speakers tend to do.)
   C is always pronounced as in cap, g always as in gap. H is aspirated. R is preferably lightly trilled. I as a consonant has the sound of y in yellow. V as a consonant has the sound of w in wet. All other consonants are pronounced as in Latin-derived languages generally. Speakers of non-rhotic or weakly rhotic dialects and languages should be careful to pronounce r. Note that qv is pronounced as in Latin and English, not as in some modern Romance languages.

    7. There is no particular tonic or stress accent, although polysyllabic words may receive a slight stress on the penultimate syllable.

    8. Spelling is generally, although not absolutely, phonemic. I and v before other vowels are consonants, otherwise vowels. Normally a text is written entirely in majuscules or entirely in minuscules. Writing a text in a mixture of majuscules and minuscules is a later invention, and the written forms of many languages have no such distinction in their scripts. (However, a mixture is used in the examples in this document merely in conformity to European usage during exposition. See the specimens for running texts.) Spaces delimit words in writing. Written declarative sentences are ended with a slash mark (/) and a space. To mark off a pause in speaking or writing, expecially for (although not limited to) an appositive or parenthetical construction, use an upper stroke (') to set apart the construction. Two slashes (//) and a space terminate written interrogative sentences.

    9. Especially, although not exclusively, in words derived from Greek, ch is represented by c, ph by f, th by t, and y by i.
   Examples: Eco (from echo), echo; filosofio (from philosophia), philosophy; trono (from thronos), throne; tipo (from typus), type.

    10. In derivatives from Latin words in which double letters occur, one of these is omitted.
   Posesiono (from possessio), possession; apelata (from appello, appellatvm), call.

    11. In derivatives from Latin words in which cqv, xce, or xci occur, c is omitted.

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    12. The parts of speech are nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions. Latin interjections, not listed here, may be used. In the derivation of words, quantity of vowels in the original Latin is ignored.

    13. Nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs derived from adjectives or participles are composed of two parts, a stem and a terminal, and have regular terminations, in all their parts and forms. Nouns end in o, a, or e; adjectives (including adjectives proper, present participles, pronominal adjectives and possessives), as to their positive form, in i; the indicative present, infinitive and imperative of verbs in a; the past indicative and past participle in e; derivative adverbs, of positive form, in v.

    14. Prepositions, conjunctions, and adverbs not derived from adjectives or participles are adopted from the Latin without other change than that incident to phonemic spelling.

    15. Words may be compounded or constructed on Latin bases according to usages common to Romance languages.
   Civilizata, civilizationo, civilize, civilization; svpersensitivi, supersensitive; inamate, loveless -- unloved; inamati, loveless -- unloving; disincorporata, disincorporate; malcontenti, malcontent; disorganizata, disorganize.

    16. Scientific words and terms adopted or derived from Latin or Greek and common to modern languages are used without change.
   Species, genera, spectrvm, spectra, bacillvs, bacilli, os, coccyx.

    17. Other words derived from the Greek are formed by the addition to Greek stems of terminals characteristic of this language.
   Fenomeno, fenonemos, phenomenon, phenomena; hipoteso, hypothesis; analiso, analysis; antiteso, antithesis; fotografo, fotografa, photograph (noun and verb).
(Note that there is no exact distinction in the foregoing two rules.)

    18. When a proper name has a generally recognized or used Latin or Latinized Greek form, it may be used without change in its most common form, or, if there is no ambiguity, its endings (sexual reference and singular or plural form) may conform to those of this language. Otherwise, proper names can take the form used in their original language, introduced by the adverbial form nominv. To help avoid ambiguity, unassimilated foreign or technical terms can be introduced by the adverbial form verbv.

    19. There is no grammatical gender or comparable classification of words, but words which refer to sexually-differentiable organisms can take an ending to show natural sex.

    20. The only plural forms are those of nouns and personal pronouns and the pronominal adjectives istis, these, ilis, those, and alis, others.

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    21. The arrangement of words in declarative sentences is generally, although not strictly, as in English, as follows:

   Short adjectives modifying the subject, the subject, other modifiers of the subject, adverbs modifying the verb, the verb, short adjectives modifying the object of the verb, the object, other modifiers of the object, prepositions and the words depending on them. It is the responsibility of the speaker or writer to compose phrases and sentences in such a way as to avoid ambiguity.

    21a. Adverbs which modify other words come before the words they modify. An adverb or adverbial phrase which generally modifies the meaning of a whole sentence or phrase may come at the head of the sentence or phrase.

    21b. If one noun modifies another noun attributively according to Rule 65 below (a noun converted to an adjective), the attributive word comes first.

    21c. If an object of a transitive verb is a pronoun, it may be placed between the subject and the verb if there is no ambiguity. If both the direct and indirect objects of a transitive verb are pronouns, they may precede the verb, with the indirect object coming first, provided there is no ambiguity. Otherwise, a preposition (most commonly a or pro) marks the indirect object, with the phrase following the verb.

    22. In this language nouns and adjectives have different endings. Possessive personal pronouns and short adjectives (especially those of one or two syllables) tend to precede the nouns they modify. Longer adjectives tend to follow their nouns.

    23. English syntactical construction is generally followed, with these exceptions:

   23a. The negative adverb no precedes the verb.
   Me no vel ira, I shall not go.

   23b. The language contains no equivalents of the English auxiliaries do, does, did. In interrogative sentences in which in English these auxiliaries are used, the subject follows the verb. To help avoid ambiguity, the Latin enclitic particle -ne may be suffixed to a leading verb in an interrogative construction.

   23c. One may also use the Latin interrogative forms none (= nonne) and nvm in the Latin manner. The first begins a question to which the expected answer is "yes," and the second to which the expected answer is "no," with the word order remaining that of the corresponding declarative sentence.
   Nvm ea sensa sani// Doesn't she feel well? (No, she does not feel well.) None ili homo habitata isti domo// Does that man live in this house? (Yes, he lives in this house.) Abirene is hodie// Did he depart today?

   23d. No equivalent of there as an expletive is used.
   Vbi es igno es caloro, where there is fire there is heat.
Similarly, there is no equivalent of English it as the subject of an impersonal verb. (Just the verb appears by itself.)
   Esa vise vt, it seems that.

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    24. In place of the Latin cases for nouns, Latinvlo uses a combination of position, endings, and prepositions. The nominative and accusative have the same form and in most cases are distinguished by position before and after the verb. All prepositions govern this common form. Many uses of the genitive employ the possessive form described below, and the use of prepositions substitutes for the dative and for other uses of the genitive. When the sense allows, a sort of quasi-ablative can be formed by affixing the adverbial terminal v to the noun stem.

    25. In the singular, neuter nouns and those denoting the male sex end in o, nouns denoting the female sex in a, nouns of common (or unknown or irrelevant) sex in e.
   Homo, man; homa, woman; home, human (an individual of the human species).

    26. The plural of nouns is formed by adding s to the singular.

    27. The possessive is formed by adding i to the singular or plural form.
   Homoi, homei, man's; homai, woman's; homosi, men's; homasi, women's; homesi, humans'.

    28. Except as noted in Rule 29, Latin nouns ending in the nominative singular in o or a are adopted, but in nouns not denoting the female sex a is changed to o.
   Homo, poemo, navto, fortitvdo.

    28a. It can happen that multiple Latin nouns, differing in gender, declension, or vowel quantity, are converted into the same Latinvlo noun, for example:
mâla, -ae 'cheekbone, jaw'
mâlum, -î 'apple'
malum, -î 'evil'
mâlus, -î 'pole, mast; apple tree'
In such instances, other qualifying words must be used to specify the meaning, such as (in order):
faciei malo
frvcti malo
maloi condiciono
navi malo; arbori malo

    29. Latin nouns, especially in the third declension, which have nominative singular forms ending in -io add o, a, or e to the oblique stem. Latinized Greek nouns are an exception to this rule.
   petitiono from petitio, petitionis, petition.

    30. Indeclinable Latin nouns are converted into Latinvlo nouns by the addition of the terminal o.
   Faso, right; nefaso, wrong; instaro, image; nihilo, nothing; maneo, morning.

    31. Nouns derived from Latin declinable nouns not ending in the nominative singular in o (except io) or a are formed by the addition of the terminals o, a or e to the oblique stem, spelled phonemically.
   Nomino, name; parto, part; lingvo, tongue; patro, father; milito, soldier; argvmento, argument; parente, parent; mendicanto, mendicanta, mendicante, medicant.

    32. The terminals ito, ieto distinguish abstract nouns derived from adjectives, corresponding to the Latin suffixes itas, ietas.

    33. In nouns formed from Latinvlo nouns, io, ia, or ie is substituted for final o, a, or e.
   Nominio, noun; partio, party; lingvio, language; mendicantio, mendicancy; homio, mankind; homia, womankind; homie, humankind; parentio, parentage; credio; creed.
   Note that nouns whose Latin nominative singular ends in ivs will also have a Latinvlo form in io without necessarily having been formed according to this rule.

    34. Latinvlo adjectives converted into nouns take the terminals o, a, or e in place of the adjective terminal.
   Bono, good; malo, evil; captivo, captiva, captive, captive.

    35. Participles are converted into nouns by the addition of o, a, or e. Applied to the past participle, the resulting noun refers to a person, animal, or object which is the recipient of the action of the verb. With the ending o applied to the present participle, the resulting form is a gerund.
   Amateo, amatea, amatee, beloved one, sweetheart; condemneo, condemnea, condemnee, condemned one; sensio, feeling; pensio, thinking; avditio, hearing.

    36. Verbal concrete nouns (i.e., those which do not refer to a process or action) are formed by the substitution of o for the verb terminal.
   Amato, love; penso, thought; credo, belief; scito, knowledge; creto, growth.

    37. Verbal nouns denoting agency (one who, that which) are formed by the addition of ro, ra, or re to the present form of the verb.
   Amataro, amatara, amatare, lover; rectaro, rectara, rectare, ruler; volvtaro, roller; tipografaro, tipografara, tipografare, typewriter (a person who types).

    38. The terminal ico denotes an art or science.
   Cemico, chemistry; matematico, mathematics; fisico, physics; organico, the art of playing on the organ; telefonico, telephony; fotografico, photography.

    39. The terminal ismo denotes a system, theory, principle or practice.
   Deismo, deism; panteismo, pantheism; cinicismo, cynicism.

    40. The teminals isto, ista, iste denote an adherent or expositor of a science, art, system, or theory.
   Cemiste, chemist; artisto, artista, artiste, artist; fatalisto, fatalista, fataliste, fatalist.

    41. The terminal ago denotes a machine, apparatus, or instrument.
   Cemicago, chemical apparatus; telegrafago, telegraph instrument; fotografago, camera; aerago, aerial machine; tipografago, typewriter.

    42. The terminal ario denotes a place where.
   Cemicario, chemical laboratory; sanatario, sanatarium; somnario, dormitario, bed-chamber; fotografario, photograph gallery.

    43. The terminals vlo, vla, vle denote diminutiveness or offspring.
   Particvlo, particle; globvlo, globule; agnvlo, agnvla, agnvle, lamb.

    44. Nouns denoting species end in eo.

    45. The terminal ilo denotes a variation in a species, such as (although not exclusively) a subspecies, breed, or race.
   Homio, (male) mankind; home an individual of the human species; homo man -- the male; homa, woman; homvle, child; homvlo, boy; homvla, girl; homilo, race.
   Tavreo, the bovine species; tavre, head of cattle; tavres, cattle; tavro, bull; tavra, cow; tavrvle, calf; tavrvlo, bull calf; tavrvla, heifer calf; tavrilo, ox.
   Caneo, the dog species; cane, cano, cana, canvle, canvlo, canvla, canilo.

Comment: Rules 25, 33, and 35 through 45 introduce a certain artificiality into the vocabulary, inasmuch as Latin has perfectly good words for some of these forms. For example, there is homa for "woman," using a distinctive termination, but Latin has the perfectly acceptable words mvlier, mvlieris and femina, so that one could use either of the forms mvliera or femina. However, use of the schematic form cuts down on the vocabulary to be learned and used.

    46. Adjectives in the comparative and superlative remain unchanged when used as nouns.
   Grandior inclvsa parvior, the greater includes the less.

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Me I, meNos, we, us.
Tv, you (singular).Vos, you (plural).
Is, lo, he, him.Ises, los, they, them (males).
Ea, la, she, her (objective.)Eas, las, they, them (females).
Ile, one, he or she, him or her.Iles, they, them.
Id, it.Ids, they, them.

    (Note that forms of tv are used in all second person singular situations, and not just in intimate or familiar circumstances.)

Mei, my, mine.Nosi, our, ours.
Tvi, your, yours.Vosi, you, yours.
Isi, loi, his.Isesi, losi, their, theirs.
Eai, lai, her, hers.Easi, lasi, their, theirs.
Ilei, ones, his or her, his or hers.Ilesi, their, theirs.
Idi, its.Idsi, their, theirs.

Mese, myself.Noses, ourselves.
Tvse, yourself.Voses, yourselves.
Ise, lose, himself.Iseses, loses, themselves.
Ease, lase, herself.Eases, lases, themselves.
Ilese, oneself.Ileses, themselves.
Idse, itself.Idses, themselves.

Mesei, my own.Nosesi, our own.
Tvsei, your own.Vosesi, your own.
Isei, losei, his own.Isesesi, losesi, their own.
Easei, lasei, her own.Easesi, lasesi, their own.
Ilesei, ones own.Ilesesi, their own.
Idsei, its own.Idsesi, their own.

    51. Pronouns have the same form for nominative and objective.
   Me vise iles, I saw them. Iles vise me, they saw me.

    52. Possessives and independent possessives are identical in form.
   Id es mei libro, it is my book. Libro es mei, the book is mine.

    53. Possessive pronouns agree with their antecedents in number and sexual reference.
   Is es eai fratro, he is her brother.

    54. Is (ises) or ea (eas) denotes the person(s) first or chiefly spoken of. If a second third-person reference is needed to refer to an individual (or individuals) of the same sex and number, then the forms lo (los) and la (las) are used. Thus, the sentence Smith told Jones he had killed his dog may be rendered:
    smith dicte a jones qve is habe ocise isi cane/
    smith dicte a jones qve is habe ocise loi cane/
    smith dicte a jones qve lo habe ocise isi cane/
    smith dicte a jones qve lo habe ocise loi cane/
Hence, the above sentences are rendered, respectively, as:
    Smith said to Jones that Smith had killed Smith's dog.
    Smith said to Jones that Smith had killed Jones's dog.
    Smith said to Jones that Jones had killed Smith's dog.
    Smith said to Jones that Jones had killed Jones's dog.
(Note that the first and fourth sentence could have used isei cane and losei cane.)

    55. Ile is of common gender. It corresponds to the English pronoun one, the French on, the German mann. It is also used in cases where the sex of the person spoken of is doubtful or irrelevant and, in the plural, where persons of both sexes may be referred to.
   Ile opa ivdicata pro ilese, one should judge for oneself. Homvle deb amata ilei parente, the child should love his or her parent. Mei amicos amata me et me amata iles, my friends love me and I love them.

Qvi, who, whom.Qviqvis, whoever.
Qve, which, that.Qveqvis, whichever.
Qvis, what.Qvisqvis, whatever.
Vt (as) is sometimes a relative pronoun.

    Note that qve when used to introduce a dependent clause is not elided, as that sometimes is in English.

    57. Qvi, qve and qvis are also used as interrogative pronouns.

Isti, this, the latter.Ili, that, the former.
Istis, these, the latter.Ilis, those, the former.
Ali, other.Alis, others.
Parvi, little.Mvlti, much.
Nvli, no, none.Vli, any.
Ambi, both.Plvri, many.
Aliqvi, some.Omni, all.
Qvisqvi, each, every.Tali, such.
Vtri, either.Nvtri, neither.

    (Aliqvi expresses an indefinite or unascertained number.)

    59. Pronominal adjectives remain unchanged when used as nouns.

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    60. Participles of this language are used as adjectives without change.

    61. All adjectives, other than past participles used as such and cardinal numbers, end, as to their positive form, in i.

    62. The comparative of all adjectives (and participles used as adjectives) is formed by the addition of or, and the superlative of all adjectives (and participles uses as adjectives) by the addition of vs, to the positive form.
   Boni, good; bonior, better; bonivs, best.
   Amati, loving; amatior, more loving; amativs, most loving.
   Amate, loved; amateor, more loved; amatevs, most loved.

    62a. For both adjectives and adverbs, form the comparison of equality with tam...qvam,, with the positive form. The conjunction to be used after the comparative degree is qvam, than.

    63. Adjectives derived from Latin adjectives are formed by the addition of the terminal i to the oblique stem.
   Boni, dvrabili, sensibili, cardiaci, primali, humani, singvlari, plenari, demonstrativi, captivi, animati, presenti, fanatici, flvidi, facili, mascvlini, verbosi.

    64. Adjectives derived from Latin adjectives ending in the nominative singular in vs, and denoting quality or resemblance, take the terminal vsi.
   Eronevsi, fatvvsi, bibvlvsi, varivsi, nefarivsi, fictitivsi, factitivsi, ignivsi, continvvsi, prepostervsi, conspicvvsi, frivilvsi, dvbivsi, anxivsi, serivsi, asidvvsi, barbarvsi, extranevsi, censorivsi.

    65. Latinvlo nouns are converted into adjectives by substituting i for the noun terminal.
   Avri; gold, golden; argenti, silver; metali, metal, metallic; ligni, wooden; lani, woolen.
   In instances of possible ambiguity, the noun so converted denotes a material or characteristic of the noun which it modifies, so that a stramenti horeo is a barn itself made out of straw. A barn for the storage of straw would be a horeo pro stramento.

    66. Comparative and superlative forms of Latin adjectives may be made the basis of words of this language.
   Svpremi, supreme; extremi, extreme; proximi, next; vltimi, last; infinitesimi, infinitesimal; maiorito, majority; optimisto, optimista, optimiste, optimist.

    67. The adjective suffix pli corresponds to the English suffix fold.
   Dvpli, twofold; trepli, threefold; decpli, tenfold; plvripli, manifold.

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Vno, one.Dvdec, twenty.
Dv, two.Dvdec-vno, twenty-one.
Tre, three.Dvdec-dv, twenty-two.
Qvat, four.Tredec, thirty.
Qvin, five.Qvadec, forty.
Sex, six.Qvindec, fifty.
Sep, seven.Sexdec, sixty.
Oc, eight.Sepdec, seventy.
Nem, nine.Ocdec, eighty.
Dec, ten.Nemdec, ninety.
Decvn, eleven.Cent, hundred.
Decdv, twelve.Mil, thousand.
Dectre, thirteen.Milion, milion.
Decqvat, fourteen.Bilion, billion.
Decqvin, fifteen.Cent vno, hundred and one.
Decsex, sixteen.Milion cent mil cent dec, one million
Decsep, seventeen.  one hundred thousand
Decoc, eighteen.  one hundred and ten.
Decnem, nineteen. 


    Vnoi, primi, first; dvi, second; trei, third; qvati, fourth; qvini, fifth, etc.; Decvni, eleventh; decdvi, twelth, etc.; dvdeci, twentieth; dvdec-primi, twenty-first; dvdec-dvi, twenty-second, etc.; Centi, hundredth; cent primi, hundred and first, etc.


    Fractional numbers are not intrinsically the same as ordinal numbers, despite the fact that the two have the same form in English and were used somewhat similarly in Latin. In Latinvlo, use the construction x ex y partos, for example, qvin ex oc partos for "five-eighths."

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    71. Like Latin, this language has no articles, indefinite or definite. When a speaker or writer thinks that some marking of indefiniteness, definiteness, or undetermined quantity is completely necessary, adjectives are available for marking, such as isti or ili to mark definiteness and aliqvi for a partitive sense. Marking for indefiniteness is almost never necessary.

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    72. The indicative present of all verbs except the auxiliaries es, hab, deb, and vel, and the infinitive and imperative of all verbs, are formed by the addition of the terminal a, the past indicative and past participle of all verbs by the addition of the terminal e, and the present participle of all verbs by the addition of the terminal i, to the supine stem, unless the Latin verb has no supine stem (see below).
   Amata, love; monite, advised; recta, rule; capta, take; avditi, hearing; scripta, write; posita, place, put; vise, saw, seen; incepta, commence; inventi; finding.

    73. All other parts of verbs are formed by the use of auxiliaries. There are no separate progressive tenses.

    74. To form an infinitive which expresses goal, purpose, direction, or intention, use the particle a before the present form of the verb. To form an infinitive which modifies a noun or pronoun, other than the foregoing, use the particle de between the noun or pronoun and the present form of the verb. The construction in order to is formed with the preposition para and the present form of the verb. (For the purpose of this rule, the present form of the verb may be esa or haba with a past participle in a compound construction.) A construction such as I want her to go is rendered in Latinvlo with a subordinate clause rather than with an infinitive, thus: Me vola qve ea ira.

    75. Latinvlo verbs formed from Latin deponent verbs are formed by adding a, e, or i, as the case may be, to the stem of the perfect indicative. Otherwise, Latinvlo verbs derived from Latin verbs wanting the supine stem, and those derived from the seven Latin irregular verbs, namely, svm, volo, qveo, fero, fio, eo, and edo, and their compounds, are formed on the stem of the present infinitive.
   Disca, learn; vada, go; trema, tremble; fvra, rage; plva, rain; esa, be; secvta, follow; abesa, be away; posa, be able; vela, wish, be willing; nola, be unwilling; posa, can, be able; lica, may, be permitted; qvia, may; neqvia, be unable; fere, bore, born, carried, brought; transfera, carry over; confera, bring together; fiere, became; hortate, urged; ira, go; abira, go away; edere, ate, eaten; exedera, peredera, eat up.

    76. Verb transitivity follows that of the Latin verb from which a Latinvlo verb derives, with substitutes for the Latin case forms if needed.

    77. Verbs are formed from Latinvlo nouns by substituting verb terminals for noun terminals. Such verbs will have the same forms as female-sex and epicene nouns in the singular. Word order and context will disambiguate instances.
   Petitiona (petitiono), petition; cemica (cemico), practice chemistry.


   Esa, be (infinitive); es, am, is, are; ese, was, were, been; esi, being.
   Haba, have (infinitive); hab, have (indicative); habe, had; habi, having.
   Vel, shall, will; vele, should, would.
   Qvia, may (be); qvie, might (have been).
   Deb, debe, ought to, should.
   Opa, ope, must.
   Lica, lice, may/might, was/were permitted.

    Perfect tenses are formed with haba, hab, habe and the past form of verbs.
   Haba amate, to have loved.

    79. Debe and ope are past tense. Ope is equivalent to had to, was obliged to.
   Tv no deb ira hodie' tv debe haba ire heri/ you ought not to go today, you should have gone yesterday. Is ire qvando is ope ira/ he went when he had to go.


    The parts of passive verbs are formed with the aid of auxiliaries.
   esa amate, to be loved.
   me es amate/ I am loved.
   me ese amate/ I was loved.
   me vel esa amate/ I shall be loved.
   me hab ese amate/ I have been loved.
   me habe ese amate/ I had been loved.
   me vel haba amate/ I shall have loved.
   me vel haba ese amate/ I shall have been loved.
   me qvia esa amate/ I may be loved.
   me qvie esa amate/ I might be loved.
   me qvia haba ese amate/ I may have been loved.
   me qvie haba ese amate/ I might have been loved.
   ms amate/ be (thou) loved.

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    81. Adverbs, other than those derived from adjectives or participles, are adopted from the Latin without change other than that incident to phonemic spelling.

   82. Adverbs are formed from Latinvlo participles by the addition of the terminal v.
   Amati, loving; amativ, lovingly.

    83. Adverbs are formed from Latinvlo adjectives by substituting v for the adjective terminal.

    84. All adverbs end in the comparative in vor, in the superlative in vis. (See also Rule 62a above.)
   Mox, soon; moxvor, sooner; moxvis, soonest.
   Vnitev, unitedly; vnitevor, more unitedly; vnitevis, most unitedly.
   Amativ, lovingly; amativor, more lovingly; amativis, most lovingly.
   Liberv, freely; libervor, more freely; libervis, most freely.

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    85. Excepting par, by, para, in order to, and sur, on, upon, the prepositions of this language are those of the Latin, phonemically spelled. Each preposition has only one signification or a closely related set of significations.

    86. Transitive present participles are sometimes used as prepositions.
   Regardi, regarding; respecti, respecting; exepti, excepting.

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    87. Latin conjunctions, phonemically spelled, are adopted.

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    88. Following are words which in derivation, form, or signification are exceptions to general rules.

Lo, la, he, she.Ile, one, he or she.
No, no, not.Es, am, is, are.
A, to.Hab, have.
Par, by.Vel, shall, will.
Svr, on, upon.Deb, ought to.
Di, with, by, from.Qvia, may.
Me, I, me.Si, yes.
Para, in order to.Lica, may, be permitted.
Vice, instead of, in place of. 
Numerical forms.

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    The mass of this as of all languages is composed of its inflected words, namely: nouns, verbs, adjectives, and derivative adverbs. Dropping the terminal vowel(s) of an inflected word, the Latin stem remains; and since Latin supplies the foundation for the majority of these words in English and the western Romance languages, their origin and signification may in many cases be ascertained by consulting a dictionary of any of these languages, excepting perhaps Italian, in which the original spelling is not closely followed. More appropriately and accurately, however, one should consult a two-way Latin dictionary with one's own language when learning of vocabulary of this language.

    Of two or more Latin words of like signification, that one will here be selected as a root which is most commonly used as a root of a word in several modern languages, whether such root may be classical, law, medieval, or new Latin.

    Although particles make up but a small percentage of a language, their frequent recurrence makes a knowledge of them indispensable. Tables of particles in common use are appended. These should be learned thoroughly along with pronominal and numerical forms.

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Abhinc, ago.Parvm, too little.
Adeo, so far.Parvmper, awhile.
Adhvc, as yet, hitherto.Pasim, here and there.
Admodvm, altogether, quite.Paene, almost.
Alias, at another time.Poro, further, in the next place.
Alibi, elsewhere.Postea, afterwards.
Aliqva, anywhere, anyhow.Posthac, postibi, hereafter.
Aliqvanto, somewhat.Potivs, rather.
Aliter, otherwise, else.Pres, at hand, ready.
Alivnde, from another place.Pridem, long ago.
Antea, before.Procvl, far, far away.
Aversvs, backwards.Propterea, on that account.
Cras, tomorrow.Prorsvm, forward, onward.
Cvr, why.Qvam, qvomodo, how.
Denvo, anew.Qvamlibet, as you please.
Deorsvm, downwards.Qvamvis, ever so much.
Div, for a long time.Qvando, when.
Dvm, while.Qvantopere, how much.
Eqvidem, indeed.Qvantvm, as much as.
Etiamnvm, still.Qvare, wherefore, whereby.
Extra, outside.Qvasi, as if.
Heri, hesterno, yesterday.Qvidem, even.
Hic, here.Qvidni, why not.
Hinc, hence.Qvipe, by all means.
Hodie, today.Qvondam, once, formerly.
Hvc, hither.Qvoniam, since, whereas.
Ibi, there.Qvotidie, daily.
Ilic, yonderQvamprimvm, as soon as.
Ilvc, thither.Saltem, at least.
Impvne, with impunity.Satis, enough.
Inde, thence.Semel, once, a single time.
Insvper, besides, moreover.Semper, always.
Interea, meanwhile.Sensim, by degrees.
Interdvm, sometimes.Saepe, often.
Ita, so.Si, yes.
Itervm, again.Sic, thus.
Iam, already.Sicvt, inasmuch as.
Modo, but, only.Simvl, at the same time.
Mox, soon.Sis, please, if you please.
Nedvm, much less.Solv, alone, only.
Neqvaqvam, by no means.Statim, at once.
Necne, or not.Svbter, underneath, below.
Nimis, too, too much.Tandem, at length, by and by.
Nilominvs, notwithstanding.Tantvm, so much.
No, no, not.Tvnc, then.
Nondvm, not yet.Vbi, where.
Nvnc, now.Vbiqve, everywhere, wherever.
Nvnqvam, never.Vna, together.
Nvper, lately.Vnde, whence.
Nvsqvam, nowhere.Vndiqve, on all sides.
Obiter, in passing.Vsitate, as usual.
Pariter, in like manner, alike.Valde, very.
 Vix, hardly, scarcely.

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A(d), to.Palam, with the knowledge of.
Ab, from.Par, by.
Ad, at.Para, in order to.
Ante, before.Penes, in possession of,
Apvd, chez, among.  in the power of.
Circvm, about, around.Per, through, throughout.
Cis, on this side of.Pone, behind.
Clam, without the knowledge of.Post, after.
Contra, opposite to, against.Preterea, besides.
Coram, in the presence of.Pro, for, on behalf of.
Cvm, with, along with.Prope, near.
De, of, concerning.Qvoad, till, until.
Di, with, by, from.Secvndvm, according to, along.
Desvper, down.Sine, without.
Dvranti, during.Svb, under.
Erga, toward.Svper, over.
Ex, out of.Svpra, above.
Gratia, for the sake of.Svr, on, upon.
In, in, into.Svrsvm, up.
Infra, below, beneath.Tenvs, up to, as far as.
Inter, between.Trans, across.
Intra, within.Vltra, beyond, past.
Ob, propter, on account of.Versvs, towards.
 Vice, instead of, in place of.

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Avt, or else, or (exclusive).Ne, lest.
Avt...avt,, neither...nor.
Dvmodo, provided only.Nisi, unless.
Ergo, therefore.Sed, but.
Et, and.Propterea qvod, because.
Etiam, also.Si, if.
Etsi, though, although.Tam, as, so.
Igitvr, then, thereupon.Tamen, yet, however.
Qvam, as, than.Vt, as.
Qvia, because.Vti, in order that.
Qvod, that.Vtrvm, whether.
Nam, for.Vel, or (inclusive).
 Vel...vel, either...or.

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The following specimen texts are adapted from Stephen Chase Houghton's original Master Language translations.



    omni gallia es divise in tre partos' vno de qve belges incolita' vn ali aqvitanes' trei ilis qvi es apelate in isesesi lingvio celtes' in mesi galli/  omni istis difera inter iseses in lingvios' institvtos' et legos/  flvmino nominv garvmna divisa galles ab aqvitanes' matrona et seqvana ab belges/  de omni istis belges es fortivs propterea qvod ises es longivs ab cvlto et hvmanito de ili provincio' et mercatores sepevis comeata ad ises et importata qvis pertenta a animo efeminatai' et propivs esi germani qvi incolita trans rhenvs cvm qvi los es contenta belo gesti/  pro qve cavso helveties qvoqve precesa reliqvos de galli in virtvto nam ises contenta cvm germani in fere prelios qvotidiani avt prohibiti ises ab losi finos avt loses belo gesti svr ises/  vno parto de istis qve es dicte galles obtenta' capta initio ab flvmino rhodanvs/  id es contente (intra) flvmino garvmna' oceano' (et) finos de belges/  id atacta etiam ab seqvanes et helveties svr flvmino rhenvs/  id vergita ad septentrionos/  belges orta ab finos extremi de gallia' pertenta a parto inferiori de flvmino rhenvs' spectati a septentrionos et orti solo/  aqvitania pertenta ab flvmino garvmna a pyrenaeos montos et ili parto de oceano qve es ad hispanes/  id spectata inter ocaso de solo et septentrionos/

    apvd helveties orgetorix ese longv nobilivs et divitivs/  is qvando m messala et m piso ese consvlos indvcte par cvpidito de regno' facte conivratio per nobilito et persvase civitato exita ab finos cvm omni isesi copios/  'declarati id' esa perfacili qvoniam ises prestate omni in virtvto' potita imperio de toto de gallia/  ad isti is facilior persvase ises qvod helveties es contente vndiqve par natvro de loco/  svr vno parto par flvmino rhenvs' litisimi et altisimi' qve divisa agro de helveties ab germanes/  svr ali parto monto altisimi ivra qve es inter seqvanes et helveties' svr trei parto laco lemannvs et flvmino rhodanvs' qve divisa mesi provincio ab helveties/  ab istis reos fiere et los qvie vaga parvior latv et qvie parvior facilv infera belo svr finitimos/



    Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres; quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. Hi omnes lingua, institutis, legibus inter se differunt. Gallos ab Aquitanis Garumna flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit. Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae, propterea quod a cultu atque humanitate provinciae longissime absunt, minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant, atque ea quae ad effeminandos animos pertinent important; proximique sunt Germanis, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibiscum continenter bellum gerunt. Qua de causa Helvetii quoque reliquos Gallos virtute praecedunt, quod fere quotidianis proeliis cum Germanis contendunt, cum aut suis finibus eos prohibent, aut ipse in eorum finibus bellum gerunt. Eorum una pars, quam Gallos obtinere dictum est, initium capit a flumine Rhodano; continentur Garumna flumine, Oceano, finibus Belgarum; attingit etiam ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum; vergit ad septentriones. Belgae ab extremis Galliae finibur oriuntur, pertinent ad inferiorem partem fluminis Rheni, spectant in septentrionem et orientem solem. Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et eam partem Oceani quae est ad Hispaniam pertinet, spectat inter occasum solis et septentriones.

    Apud Helvetios longe nobilissimus fuit et ditissimus Orgetorix. Is, M. Messala et M. Pisone consulibus, regni cupiditate inductus, conjurationem nobilitatis fecit, et civitati persuasit ut de finibus suis cum omnibus copiis exirent; parfacile esse, cum virtute omnibus praestarent, totius Galliae imperio potiri. Id hoc facilius eis persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur; una ex parte flumine Rheno latissimo atque altissimo, qui agrum Helvetium a Germanis dividit; altera ex parte monte Jura altissimo, qui est inter Sequanos et Helvetios; tertia lacu Lemanno et flumine Rhodano, qui provinciam nostram ab Helvetiis dividit. His rebus fiebat, ut et minus late vagarentur, et minus facile finitimis bellum inferre possent.


    ese dvranti tempo qvondam digni homo qvi habe sposate in dvi conivgio domina tam pleni de svperbio et arogantio vt no haba eqvalo/  ea habe dv filias de caractero idemi de easei et qvi ese tam simile ad ea qvam dv gvtos de aqvo/

    item marito habe filia' sed de dvlcitvdo et de bonito de qve ile no qvie data ideo/  et in isti la tracte ab lai mama qvi habe ese bonivs domina de mvndo/

    conivgio ese vix facte' qvando noverca incepte' svbitv a monstrata eai malignito/  ea no qvie tolerata qvalito boni de pvera propterea qvod ad isti confrontio' eai filias fiere antipaticior qvam vnqvam/  ea destinate la a laboros trivialivs de domo/  ese la qvi operate in cvlino' la qvi verse scalos et resarcite dormitorios de domina et dominvlas/  la qvi dormite svb tecto' propriv in granario' svr matrato mali de stramento' dvm sororas manse in dormitorios di inserte lignos vbi ese lectos de gvstato vltimi et specvlos in qve ile pose visa ab capito a pedos/  filia pavperi tolerate omni reos cvm patientio et no habe cordo qvesta a lai patro qvi vele haba obivrgate la propterea qvod is ese homo qvi facte ise dvcte par naso in toto et per toto par isi vxora/

    qvando la habe finite lai laboros' la ire a recesa in angvlo de foco vbi la sese lase in ceneros/  propterea la ese apelate cvlincenere/  sed dvi de lai sororas qvi no ese tam despicati qvam maiori apelate la cenerentola/


    C'era una volta un gentiluomo il quale aveva sposate in seconde nozze una donna così piena di albagia e d'arroganza da non darsi l'eguale. Ella aveva due figlie dello stesso carattere del suo, e che la somigliavano come due gocce d'acqua.

    Anche il marito aveva una figlia, ma di una dulcezza e de una bontà de non farsene un' idea; e in questo tirava dalla sua mamma, la quale era stata la piu buona donna del mondo.

    Le nozze erano appena fatte, che la matrigna dette subito a dividere le sua cattiveria. Ella non poteva patire le buone qualità della giovinetta, perchè, al quel confronto, le sue figliuole diventavano piu antipatiche che mai. Ella la destino alle faccende piu triviali della casa; era lei che rigovernava in cucina, lei che spazzava le scale e rifaceva le camare della signora e delle signorine; lei che dormiva a tetto, proprio in un granario, sopra una cattiva materassa di paglia, mentre le sorelle stavano in camere coll' impiantito de legno, dov' erano letti d' ultimo gusto, e specchi da potervisi mirare dalla testa fino ai piedi. La povera figliuola tolerava ogni cosa con pazienza, e non aveva cuore di rammaricarsene con suo padre, il quale l' avrebbe sgridata, perchè era un uomo che si faceva menare per il naso in tutto e per tutto dalla moglie.

    Quando aveva finito le sue faccende, andava a rincantucciarsi in un angulo del focolare, dove si mettava a sedere nella cenere; motivo per cui la chiamavano comunamente la Culincenere. Ma la seconda della sorelle, che non era cosi sboccata come la maggiore, la chimava Cenerentola.


par nominv fenelon

libro primi/   svmario

    telemachvs condvcte par minerva svb figvro de mentor egresa' post navfragio in insvlo de dea calypso' qvi dole etiamnvm abito de vlysses/  dea recepta is favorabilv' concepta pasio pro is' ofera is imortalito' et rogata de is isi aventvros/  is narata ad ea isi navigatio a pylos et a lacedaemon' isi navfragio svr oro de sicilia' pericvlo qve is habe de esi imolate a manos de anchises' svcvrso qve is et mentor date ad acestes in incvrsio de barbarios et cvro qve ili rego habe recognita isti servitio' par donatio ad ises navo redita ad isesi patrio/

    calypso no qvie consolata lase di abito dv vlysses/  in eai doloro ea concepte lase infelici a esa imortali/  eai antro non longvor resonite di eai canto' nimfas qvi servite ea no avse alocvte ea/  ea ambvlate saepe solv svr pratos floridi cvm qve vero eternali margine eai insvlo/  sed istis locos pvlcri' procvl di moderati eai doloro' servite modo revocata memorio tristi de vlysses qvi ea habe hic vise mvltoties circa ea/  saepe ea remanse imobili svr litoro de maro qve ea hvmectate di eai lacrimos' et ea ese sine cesatio verse versvs oro vbi navo de vlysses' obniti vndos' habe disparite ab eai ocvlos/

    svbito ea percepte reliqvos de navo qve nvnc ipsvm habe facte navfragio' scamnos de remigataros fracte in fragmentos' il remos disiecte pasim svr sabvlo' gvbernacvlo' navi malo' restos' natati svr litero/  tvnc ea observata procvl dv homos de qvi vno parite veteri/  ali etsi ivveni similate vlysses/  is habe isi lenito et isi svperbio cvm isi statvro et isi inceso avgvsti/  dea comprense qvod is ese telemachvs' filio de ili hero/  sed' etsi dees exelsa procvl in cognitio omni homes' ea no qvie discoperata qvi ese ili homo venerabili di qvi telemachvs ese atende/  propterea qvod dees svperiori ocvltata ab inferiori omni reos qve iles vela/  et minerva qvi atende telemachvs svb figvro de mentor no vele a esa congnite par calypso/

    interdvm calypso letate lase di navfragio qvi posite in eai insvlo filio de vlysses' ita similari ad isi patro/  ea admote versvs is/  et sine pariti scita qvi is es' qvomodo hab tv' ea dicte ad is' temerito a apvlsa in mei insvlo//  scita' peregrino ivveni' qvod iles no venta impvne in mei imperio/  ea tente ocvltata svb istis verbos minaci letitio de eai cordo' qve efvlgite contra eai volvnto svr eai vvlto/  telemachvs response ad ea' o tv qviqvis tv qvia esa' mortala avt dea' etsi visio tv ile qvia svmpta tv modo pro divinita' vel tv esa insensibili a miserio de vn filio qvi qvesiti isi patro apvd misericordio de ventos et vndos hab vise isi navo fracta contra scopvlos// qvi es igitvr tvi patro qvi tv qvesita// rogate dea/  lo es nominate vlysses' dicte telemachvs/  lo es vno di ili regos qvi hab post obsidio de dec anos svbverse troia famosi/  loi nomino es celebrati in omni graecia et in omni asia pro loi valoro in pvgnos et etiam mvltior par loi sapientio in consilios/


Par Fenelon.

Livre Premier.    Sommaire.

    Télémaque conduit par Minerva sous la figure de Mentor, aborde, après un naufrage, dans l'île de la déesse Calypso, qui regrettait encore le depart d'Ulysee. La déesse reçoit favorablement, conçoit de la passion pour liu, lui offre l'immortalité, et lui demand ses aventures. Il lui reconte son voyage à Pylos et à Lacedemone, son naufrage sur la côte de Sicile, le peril ou il fut d'être immolé aux mânes d'Anchise, le secours qui lui et Mentor donnèrent à Aceste dans un incursion de barbares, et le soin que ce roi eut de reconnaître ce service, en leur donnant un vaisseau pour retourner in leur pays.

    Calypso ne pouvait se consoler du depart d'Ulysse. Dans sa douleur, elle se trouvait malheureuse d'être immortelle. Sa grotte ne résonait plus de son chant, les nymphes qui la servaient n'osaient lui parler. Elle se promenait souvent seule sur les gazons fleuris dont un printemps éternal bordait son île; mais ces beaux lieux, loin de modérer sa douleur, ne faisaient que lui rappeler le triste souvenir de Ulysse, qu'elle y avait vu tant de fois auprès d'elle. Souvent elle demeurait immobile sur le rivage de lar me, qu'elle arrosait de ses larmes; et elle etait sans cesse tournée vers la côte ou le vaisseau d'Ulysse, fendant les ondes, avait disparu à ses yeux.

    Tout-a-coup, elle apperçut les debris d'un navire qui venait de faire naufrage, des bancs de rameurs mis en pièces les rames écartées çà et là sur le sable, un gouvernail, un mât, des cordages flottant sur la côte; puis elle decouvre de loin deux hommes, dont l'un paraissait âgé; l'autre, quoique jeune, resemblait à Ulysse. Il avait sa douceur et sa fierté, avec sa taille et sa demarche magesteuse. La déesse comprit que c'etait Télémaque, fils de ce héros; mais, quoique les dieux surpassent de loin en connaissance tous les hommes elle ne put découvrir qui était cet homme venérable dont Télémaque etait accompagné. C'est que les dieux supérieurs cachent aux inférieurs tout ce qu'il leur plait; et Minerve, qui accompagnait Télémaque sous la figure de Mentor, ne voulait pas être connue de Calypso.

    Cependant Calypse se réjouissait d'un naufrage qui mettait dans son île le fils d'Ulysse, si semblable à son père. Elle s'avance vers lui; et sans faire semblant de savior qui il est; D'ou vous vient, lui dit-elle, cette témérité d'aborder en mon île? Sachez, jeune étranger, qu'on ne vient point impunément dans mon empire. Elle tâchait de couvrir sous ces paroles menaçantes la joie de son coeur, qui éclatait malgré elle sur son visage; Télémaque lui répondait: O vous, qui que vous soyez, mortelle ou désse, quoiqu'à vous voir on ne puisse vous prendre que pour un divinité, seriez-vous insensible au malheur d'un fils qui, cherchant son père à la merci des vènts et des flots, a vu briser son navire contre les rochers? Quel est donc votre père qui vous cherchez? reprit la déesse. Il se nomme Ulysse, dit Télémaque; c'est un des rois qui ont, après un siège de dix ans, renversé la fameuse Troie. Son nom fut célebré dans toute l'Asie par son valeur dans le combats, et plus encore par sa sagesse dans les conseils.


par nominv joseph leconte

capito i.

    tipo de evolvtio -- qvisqvi ile es familiari di factos principali conecte de excvltatio de ove/  nos omni cognita qvod id incepta vt germino-celo microscopi' tvm creta in ovo' tvm organizata in pvlvle' et in vltimv creta in pvlo/  et qvod toti proceso secvta generali lego bene recognite/  nvnc isti proceso es evolvtio/  es mvltior -- es ili tipo de omni evolvtio/  es ili ab qve mes aqvisita mesi ideo de evolvtio et sine qve vele esa nvli tali verbo/  qvandoqve et vbiqve mes inventa proceso de mvtatio mvltior avt parvior simili isti' et secvti legos similari ad ilis determinati excvltatio de ovo' mes apelate id evolvtio/

    vniversalito de evolvtio -- evolvtio vt proceso no es confine ad vno reo' ovo' nec vt doctrino es id confine ad vno departmento de scientia -- biologico/  proceso pervasa omni vniverso et doctrino concerna pariter qvisqvi departmento de scientio -- si qvisqvi departmento de penso hvmani/  id es literalv vno dimidio de omni scientio/  ergo idi verito avt falsito' idi receptio avt reiectio' es nvli materio triviali' afecti modo angvlo parvi de penso-regnio/  ex contrario' id afecta profvndv fvndatios de filosofio et ergo toti dominio de penso/  id determinata toti positio de mento versvs natvro et deo/

    me hab dicte vt evolvtio constitvta vno dimidio de omni scientia/  isti qvia parata ad aliqvi propositio svrpensi/  me pavsa a facta id esa boni/  qvisqvi sistemo de partos corelate qvia esa stvdite ab dv pvnctos de observatio' qve data origo a dv departmentos de scientio' vno de qve -- et magnior et complicior -- es evolvtio/  vno concerna mvtatios intra systemo par actio et reactio inter partos' prodvcti eqvilibrio et stabilito/  ali concerna motio progresivi de il sistemo' vt vno toto' ad altior et altior conditios -- motio de pvncto de eqvilibrio idse' par distvrbantio constanti levi et reacomodatio de partos svr altior plano' cvm inter-relatos complicior/  vno concerna legos de svstentatio de sistemo' ali ili legos de evolvtio/  vno concerna reos vt ids es' ali ili proceso par qve ids fiera sic/  nvnc natvra vt vno toto es tali sistemo de partos corelate/  qvisqvi departmento et svb-departmento de natvro nvm id esa sistemo solari' avt regnio organici avt societo hvmani avt corporo hvmani' es tali sistemo de partos corelate et es ergo svbiecti de evolvtio/  mes qvia bonivs facta isti penso clari par exemplos/

    respecta ergo corporo hvmani/  isti sistemo complici et pvlcri de adivste partos corelate et svbtilv qvia esa stvdite in conditio de matvrito et eqvilibiro in qve omni organos et fvnctios par actio et reactio co-operata prodvcta stabilito perfecti' sanito' et felicito fisicali/  isti stvdito es fisiologico/  avt idemi reo qvia esa stvdite in conditio de mvtatio progresivi/  nvnc mes percepta qvod isti stabilito es nvnqvam perfecti -- pvncto de eqvilibrio es semper moti/  par nvmero semper-mvtati et potentio relativi de partos co-operati' eqvilibrio es semper esi distvrbate' modo a esa readivste svr altior plano cvm inter-relatios qvidem pvlcrior et complicior/  isti es creto' excvltatio' evolvtio/  idi stvdito es apelate embriologico/


By LeConte.

Chapter I.

    A Type of Evolution -- Everyone is familiar with the main facts connected with the development of an egg. We all know that it begins as a microscopic germ-cell, then grows into an egg, then organizes into a chick, and finally grows into a cock; and that the whole process follows general, well recognized law. Now, this process is evolution. It is more -- it is the type of all evolution. It is that from which we get our idea of evolution, and without which there would be no such word. Whenever and wherever we find a process of change more or less resembling this, and following laws similar to those determining the development of an egg, we call it evolution.

    Universality of Evolution -- Evolution as a process is not confined to one thing, the egg, nor as a doctrine is it confined to one department of science -- biology. The process pervades the whole universe, and the doctrine concerns alike every department of science -- yes, every department of human thought. It is literally one-half of all science. Therefore, its truth or falsity, its acceptance or rejection, is no trifling matter, affecting only one small corner of the thought-realm. On the contrary, it affects profoundly the foundations of philosophy, and therefore the whole domain of thought. It determines the whole attitude of the mind toward Nature and God.

    I have said that evolution constitutes one-half of all science. This may seem to some a startling proposition. I stop to make it good. Every system of correlated parts may be studied from two points of view, which give rise to two departments of science, one of which -- and the greater and more complex -- is evolution. The one concerns changes within the system by action and reaction between the parts, producing equilibrium and stability; the other concerns the progressive movement of the system, as a whole, to higher and higher conditions -- the movement of the point of equilibrium itself by constant slight disturbance and readjustment of parts on a higher plane, with more complex inter-relations. The one concerns laws of sustentation of the system, the other the laws of evolution. The one concerns things as they are, the other the process by which they became so. Now, Nature as a whole is such a system of correlated parts. Every department and sub-department of Nature, whether it be the solar system, or the earth, or the organic kingdom, or human society, or the human body, is such a system of correlated parts, and is therefore subject to evolution. We can best make this thought clear by examples.

    Take, then, the human body. This complex and beautiful system of correlated and nicely-adjusted parts may be studied in a state of maturity and equilibrium, in which all the organs and functions by action and reaction co-operate to produce perfect stability, health and physical happiness. This study is physiology. Or else the same may be studied in a state of progressive change. Now, we perceive that the stability is never perfect -- the point of equilibrium is ever moving. By the ever-changing number and relative power of the co-operating parts the equilibrium is ever being disturbed, only to be readjusted on a higher plane, with still more beautiful and complex inter-relations. This is growth, development, evolution. Its study is called embryology.

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