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Soy Sauce

Soy Sauce Characteristics
Pronounced: Soi
Soy sauce originated in China approximately 2,500 years ago. Meat and fish were perserved by packing them with salt. The liquid that leached from the perserved meat was then used as a seasoning (see Fish Sauce). With the introduction of Buddhism in the sixth century BC, a need for a meatless seasoning was created because many of the Buddhists practiced vegetarianism.

In 1254, a Zen priest called Kakushin is attributed to creating a meatless seasoning from a salty paste of fermented grains including soybeans. The priest developed a miso recipe while studying in China, and brought recipe back to Japan. He began making his version and introduced it to others, and accidentally found a liquid residue in the bottom of the container. This liquid is a thick soy sauce called Tamari. Over the years, the Japanese modified the ingredients and brewing techniques to produce a soy sauce with a more balanced flavor that enhanced food flavors. Authentic soy sauce is made from soybeans, wheat, and salt. soybeans are carefully selected and roasted. The roasted soybeans and flour made from roasted wheat are inoculated with a culture of Aspergillus oryzae1. The mash is incubated for three days at 85°F (30°C). During this time, the Aspergillus breaks down starch from the soybeans and wheat flour into simple sugars; hard-to-digest soy proteins into easily absorbed amino acids, and fats into fatty acids. At the end of the three days, the resulting culture is called koji. The koji is mixed with brine (heavily salted water) to produce a mash caled moromi. The moromi is transfered to fermentation tanks for one year. During this time, the "brewing" process (similar to brewing beer) produces lactic acid which drops the pH and makes the mixture more acidic, and alcohol is also produced from the sugars. At the end of the year, the solids, or "cake", are filtered off, and the liquid collected. This liquid is refined, tested, pasteurized, and bottled to produce high-quality soy sauce.

The brewing process causes the soy sauce to contain between 1 and 2% (V/V) alcohol (ethanol). Some naturally brewed soy sauces containing 2% alcohol are imposed a spirit duty.

Varieties

Hopefully, not everyone in the US thinks soy sauce is the salty dark brown liquid that comes in packets with Chinese take out -- That stuff is nasty! It is varying grades of synthetic soy sauce. Soy sauce, just like beer, wine, or balsamic vineger, can range from authentic, top-grade varieties aged in seasoned wooden casks to quickly manufactured, chemically-enhanced off-taste vile substances.

Soy sauce is called "shoyu" in Japan. There are many different types of soy sauces. In Japan, there are five kinds of soy sauces in Japanese (JAS) classifications:

  1. Dark soy sauce (koi-kuchi shoyu)
    Dark soy sauce contains carmel for coloring and thickening, and his a rich flavor. It is by far the most common type of soy sauce. In Japan, approximately 83% of the soy sauce produced is dark soy sauce.
  2. Light soy sauce (usu-kuchi shoyu)
    Light soy sauce is amber in color, clearer, thinner, and saltier than the dark soy sauce. Light soy sauce is used to season foods like fish, vegetables and clear soup without imparting a dark color.
  3. Tamari
    Tamari is produced in and around Nagoya, in central Japan. This is the mother of all soy sauce from 400 years ago. Unlike the others, it is made using a lesser quantity of wheat to no wheat, which is much produces a darker and thicker sauce. Tamari is good for Sashimi, Teriyaki and Nimono (simmered dishes).
  4. Saishikomi
    Saishikomi is twice fermented and is a darker and thicker soy sauce for Sashimi and Sushi
  5. Shiro
    Shiro, or white soy sauce is a lighter colour than light soy sauce. Unlike Tamari, Shiro uses a larger ratio of wheat to soybeans and requires more salt water than others. It is used for cooking white fish, vegetables and soup base for noodles.

    Other types of soy sauces include:

    Online Sources

    Footnotes

    1 Aspergillus is a fungus. There are many different types of Aspergillus fungi, many of which are harmful to humans. Several, however, are beneficial to humans. Aspergillus niger, for example is used to produce citric acid by large scale fermentation. Aspergillus oryzae is used in the fermenation of soy sauce -- It is also used in the fermentation of rice to make sake!
    2 Halal is an Arabic word meaning lawful or permitted.
    3 Haram is an Arabic word meaning anything that is forbidden by Islamic law.


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