Clay Irving Collection - Error Notes

© Copyright 1995-2022, Clay Irving <clay@panix.com>

Error Notes

The Relative Rarity Index was developed by Dr. Frederick J. Bart. It places errors on small size notes into nine categories arranged from R-1, the most common, through R-9, the extremely rare.

FR-2011L | KL-20101

Obstructed Printing Error

Series 1950 A $10 Federal Reserve Note, Priest - Humphrey, Plate# P194/1494, S/N L78607554A

PMG Choice Uncirculated 63 EPQ

Relative Rarity Index: R-3

FR-1619 | KL-1462

MA Block with Inverted "W" instead of "M" in upper right serial number
First of the 36 subject sheets

Series 1957 $1 Silver Certificate, Priest - Anderson, Plate# E376/203, S/N M19456858A

Relative Rarity Index: R-7

FR-1619 | KL-1462

Mismatched Serial Numbers - G54/G55

Series 1957 $1 Silver Certificate, Priest - Anderson, Plate# E242/148, S/N G54441186A and G55441186A

Relative Rarity Index: R-4

FR-1903F | KL-1506

Mismatched Serial Numbers - F67/F68

Series 1969 $1 Federal Reserve Note, Richmond, Elston - Kennedy, Plate# E95/1209, S/N F67921155A and F68921155A

See $1 Federal Reserve Note Series 1969 Signatures

Relative Rarity Index: R-4

FR-1903G | KL-1507

End of Roll Error

Series 1969 $1 Federal Reserve Note, Chicago, Elston - Kennedy, Plate# E149/1246, S/N G34496114C

Relative Rarity Index: R-8

From United States Paper Money Errors: A Comprehensive Catalog & Price Guide by Dr. Frederick J. Bart:

The end of roll error originates from markings or splices created by Crane and Co. This firm supplies the Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) with currency stock. Markings take various forms. Until recently, an impregnated red or purple diagonal line indicated the end of the roll. Since the series of 1990, a matte green indicator strip forewarns the press operator. When the matte green marked paper is accidentally utilized for currency production, the marking appears vertically at one end correlating with a faulty alignment on the opposite side.

FR-1908E | KL-1577

Moderate Misaligned Overprint

Series 1974 $1 Federal Reserve Note, Richmond, Neff - Simon, Plate# H141/1861, S/N E94071809B

Relative Rarity Index: R-3

FR-1908L | KL-1584

Back Plate 905 Engraving Error

Series 1974 $1 Federal Reserve Note, San Franciso, Neff - Simon, Plate# C232/905, S/N L98767012B

PCGS Very Choice New 64PPQ

Relative Rarity Index: R-4

The engraver accidentally omitted the first digit. The back plate number should have been 1905 instead of 905.

FR-1908K | KL-1583

Type 1 Inverted Overprint

Series 1974 $1 Federal Reserve Note, Dalls, Neff - Simon, Plate# E354/2008, S/N K41980059C

PCGS Very Choice New 64PPQ

Relative Rarity Index: R-5

An "Inverted Overprint" error is caused when a sheet of notes accidentally get turned around prior to receiving the overprint and the overprint is printed on the face of the note upside down. A "Type 1 Inverted Overprint" error has properly aligned face and back printing (registration). Whereas "Type 2 Inverted Overprint" errors has misaligned registration.

FR-1973J

Mismatched Serial Numbers

Series 1974 $5 Federal Reserve Note, Kansas City, Neff - Simon, Plate# G124/196, S/N J36/35138602B

PCGS Very Choice New 64PPQ

Relative Rarity Index: R-5

FR-1909K | KL-1589

Misaligned Digit

Series 1977 $1 Federal Reserve Note, Richmond, Morton - Blumenthal, Plate# B1087/2332, S/N K06586819B

Relative Rarity Index: R-4

FR-1909K | KL-1589

Minor Board Break on Face at Right

James Wilson Collection

Series 1977 $1 Federal Reserve Note, Richmond, Morton - Blumenthal, Plate# G102/2338, S/N K41244004B

PCGS Very Choice New 64PPQ

Relative Rarity Index: R-3

Board Break Error from United States Paper Money Errors, 3rd Edition, by Dr. Federick J. Bart

The designation "board break" refers to the error resulting from a partially broken impression cylinder. An impression cylinder forces the unprinted currency into the intaglio recesses of the printing plate. The impression cylinder, or rigging, carries a wooden external wrapper, rigid enough to ideally sustain the workload yet pliable enough to squeeze the currency sheet into the plate.

The plate cylinder contains two or four thirty-two subject engraved printing plates. During the production of United States paper money, the currency sheet passes between the plate cylinder and the impression cylinder under 40 to 80 tons of pressure. Because the impression cylinder must endure such extreme pressure, areas occasionally become fatigued. The end result of such fatigue is failure as segments either compress into the cylinder or fall away. The disruption in the continuity of the impression cylinder yields an area incapable of pushing the currency paper into the incuse design on the plate cylinder. This produces a white unprinted area on the finished piece of paper money that correlates directly to the portion of the plate cylinder opposite the broken segment of the impression cylinder. Consequently, every note printed using the imperfect impression cylinder will exhibit the identical error—matching in size, shape, and location—unless the defect expands and/or until the rigging is replaced.

FR-1935B | KL-1628

Mismatched Block Letter Prefix

Series 1976 $2 Federal Reserve Note, New York, Neff - Simon, Plate# H49/48, S/N H45432464A/B45432464A

PCGS Choice New 64 Apparent — Graded with "Apparent" designation due to minor rust stain in bottom margin.

Relative Rarity Index: R-6

FR-1935B | KL-1628

Underinking of Single Digit in Serial Numbers

Series 1976 $2 Federal Reserve Note, New York, Neff - Simon, Plate# D20/21, S/N B09832799A

Relative Rarity Index: R-3

Enlargement of the serial numbers reveals a faint amount of green ink for the missing digit in the upper right serial number.

FR-1910B | KL-1598

Overprint on Back

Series 1977 A $1 Federal Reserve Note, New York, Morton - Miller, Plate# F1832/2862, S/N B36858105K

Relative Rarity Index: R-5

FR-1911E | KL-3504

4-Specimen Uncut Sheet
Back Plate Error 7273

Series 1981 $1 Federal Reserve Note, Richmond, Buchanan - Regan, Plate# H188/, S/N E99879958F

Relative Rarity Index: R-4

Notes printed for the Richmond Federal Reserve District in the H1 plate position had a back plate number of "7273" instead of "3273" (like the other three notes). The back plate numbers for this Series didn't even reach 4000. View Back

FR-1912H | KL-3607

Back Plate Number 129 Engraving Error

Series 1981 A $1 Federal Reserve Note, St. Louis, Ortega - Regan, Plate# H73/129, S/N H81542173B, 182,400,000 printed for the St. Louis Federal Reserve District

Relative Rarity Index: R-4

Back Plate Number 129 Engraving Error — The pantograph operator inadvertently engraved back plate number 129 at the left instead of the normal right position.

FR-1978D
Moderate Printed Fold Over

Series 1985 $5 Federal Reserve Note, Cleveland, Ortega - Baker, Plate# A371/312, S/N D92808511B

Relative Rarity Index: R-5

The note was printed by the plate in the "A1" plate position (upper left corner of the sheet). The upper left corner was folded over during printing of the overprint and the overprint was printed on the fold over. The sheet was subsequently cut with the fold over. View the unfolded note

FR-2018L
Solvent Smear on Back

Series 1969 $10 Federal Reserve Note, San Franciso, Elston - Kennedy, Plate# G72/89, S/N L49565528A

Relative Rarity Index: R-4

PGCS Choice About New 55PPQ

FR-2027H
Major Ink Smear on Back

Series 1985 $10 Federal Reserve Note, Saint Louis, Ortega - Baker, Plate# F443/465, S/N H83715226B

Relative Rarity Index: R-4

PGCS Superb Gem New 67PPQ

FR-2075B | KL-3737

Missing Black Overprint

Series 1985 $20 Federal Reserve Note, New York, Ortega - Baker, Plate# H39/259, S/N B64707238A

Missing Black Overprint

Relative Rarity Index: R-5

FR-2075G | KL-3742

Missing Back Printing

Series 1985 $20 Federal Reserve Note, Chicago, Ortega - Baker, Plate# F469, S/N G96541091G

PCGS About New 50Face of Note

Relative Rarity Index: R-6

A "Missing Back Printing" error could have been caused by two sheets of paper sticking together during the printing process, leaving one side of one of the sheets unprinted.

Missing Second (Face) Printing

$20 Federal Reserve Note, S/N A30879298C

PMG Choice Uncirculated 64 EPQ

Relative Rarity Index: R-8

FR-1916L | KL-3867

Face Plate Number 106 Engraving Error

Series 1988 A $1 Federal Reserve Note, St. Louis, Villalpando - Brady, Plate# B209/154, S/N L11901137E

Relative Rarity Index: R-4

Face Plate Number 106 was incorrectly engraved with larger numbers matching the correct size for notes printed at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing in Washington, DC.

FR-2079B

Moderate Printed Fold Over

Series 1993 $20 Federal Reserve Note, New York, Withrow - Bentsen, Plate# D9/347, S/N B27991487C

PCGS Very Fine 30

Relative Rarity Index: R-5

Printed at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing in Washington, DC.

FR-2079E

Gutter Fold

Series 1993 $20 Federal Reserve Note, Richmond, Withrow - Bentsen, Plate# A64/4, S/N E94492773F

Relative Rarity Index: R-3

PCGS Extremely Fine 45PPQ

Printed at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing in Washington, DC.

FR-1921D | KL-4238

Complete Face-to-Back (F2B) Offset Error

Series 1995 $1 Federal Reserve Note, Cleveland, Withrow - Rubin, Plate# C96/212, S/N D35604219C

Relative Rarity Index: R-2

Normally a sheet is fed into the printing press and is physically pressed by an impression cylinder into the inked printing plate to produce the intaglio print. If there is some type of misfeed of the sheet, then the inked plates make direct contact with the impression cylinder and the inked impression of the plate sticks to the impression cylinder. The next sheet fed into the press receives the expected printed image, but the inked image on the impression cylinder is also printed on the opposite side of the sheet. The first few sheets have sharp images and each subsequent sheet eventually removes all the transfer ink on the impression cylinder.

This note is a complete Face-to-Back, commonly abbreviated as "F2B" Offset (or Transfer) Error. The back of the note is printed first. When the face of the note was printed, the offset error occurred.

View High Resolution (3747 X 1591 Pixel) Image

Printed at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing in Washington, DC

FR-1922I | KL-4249

Back Plate Number 295 Engraving Error

Series 1995 $1 Federal Reserve Note, Minneapolis, Withrow - Rubin, Plate# C379/295, S/N I27703373F, 1,310,720,000 printed for the Minneapolis Federal Reserve District

PCGS Gem New 66PPQ

Relative Rarity Index: R-4

Back Plate Number 295 Engraving Error — "295" is engraved in a smaller font than other back plate numbers.

Printed at the Western Currency Facility in Fort Worth, TX.

FR-1921X

Missing Overprint

Series 1995 $1 Federal Reserve Note, Withrow - Rubin, Plate# A440/579, S/N Unknown

Relative Rarity Index: R-6

High-Resolution Scan

FR-1921E | KL-4239

Stuck Digit in Serial Number

Series 1995 $1 Federal Reserve Note, Richmond, Withrow - Rubin, Plate# E435/576, S/N E80882705K

Relative Rarity Index: R-4

PCGS Choice About New 58PPQ

FR-2085D | KL-4552

District Designator Variance

Series 1999 $20 Federal Reserve Note, Cleveland, Withrow - Summers, Plate# C4/1, S/N BD58018302A

PMG Very Fine 30

Relative Rarity Index: R-8

The District Designator "D4" is smaller (3mm versus 3.5mm) and located further below the serial number. The only district affected by this particular mistake. In fact, the absolute sole occurance of any type of engraving error on any big head design of any denomination. In total, far less than 50 pieces are known in all states of preservation, with none known in CU — See Series 1999 $20.00 Federal Reserve Note District Designator Error

Another variation — S/N BD74612758A

FR-1928E✩ | KL-4657✩

Misaligned Overprint of One Color

Series 2003 $1 Federal Reserve Note, Star Note, Richmond, Marin - Snow, Plate# G113/119, S/N E12637412✩

A misaligned overprint of a Star Note is a rarity.

FR-1930E | KL-4670

Misaligned "Turned" Digit in Serial Number

Series 2003 A $1 Federal Reserve Note, Richmond, Cabral - Snow, Plate# A260/168, S/N E06503305F

Relative Rarity Index: R-1

A misaligned or turned digit results from a clogged numbering wheel on the cylinder that prints the serial number.

FR-2179L

Misaligned "Turned" Digit in Serial Number

Series 2003 A $100 Federal Reserve Note, San Francisco, Cabral - Snow, Plate# D14/9, S/N FL49140016B

Relative Rarity Index: R-1

A misaligned or turned digit results from a clogged numbering wheel on the cylinder that prints the serial number.

FR-1933L | KL-4808

Missing Black Overprint

Series 2006 $1 Federal Reserve Note, San Francisco, Cabral - Paulson, Plate# G131/68, S/N L46119813P

PCGS Choice About New 58PPQ

Relative Rarity Index: R-5

Printed at the Western Currency Facility in Fort Worth, TX.