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1. St. James's founded 1822
2. St. Paul's founded 1832
3. Church of the Holy Trinity founded 1832
4. St. Mary's, subsequently Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Williamsburgh. founded 1838
5. Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary founded 1842
6. St. Patrick's Church founded 1848
7. Church of St. Charles Borromeo founded 1851
8. St. John's Church founded 1851
9. St. Joseph's Church founded 1852
8. St. Mary's Star of the Sea 1855
10. Church of the Immaculate Conception founded 1853
11. St. Benedict's Church founded 1853
12. St. Malachi's Church founded 1854
13. St. Michael's Church founded 1864
14. Church of St. Boniface founded 1853
15. Church of St. Francis founded 1857
16. Church of Our Lady of Mercy founded 1857
17. Church of St. Anthony founded 1857
18. St. Peter's Church founded 1859
19. St. Anne's Church founded 1860
20. Church of St. Vincent de Paul founded 1863
21. Church of the Annuciation of the Blessed Virgin founded 1863
22. St. Nicholas's Church founded 1863
23. St. Stephen's Church founded 1866
24. Church of All Saints founded 1867
25. Church of St. Mary's, Queen of the Isles founded 1868
26. Church of Our Lady of Victory founded 1868
27. Church of St. Louis founded 1869

Roman Catholic Institutions.

28. College of St John the Baptist founded 1869
29. Sisters of Charity founded 1836
30. Roman Catholic Orphanage asylum [female] founded 1829
31. St Mary's Female Hospital founded 1868
32. The Visitation Convent and Academy founded 1855
33. St. Francis of Assisium, Convent of the Sisters of Mercy founded 1855
34. Convent of the Sisters of St. Dominic founded 1825
35. Convent of the Sisters of St. Joseph founded 1856
36. Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis
37. Brothers of the Christian Schools
38. Monastery of St. Francis of Assisi founded 1860
39. Little Sisters of the Poor founded 1869

The Catholic church is of comparatively recent date in Brooklyn, and during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was represented only by a few isolated members among its transient population. The history of the Catholics of Brooklyn as a body begins in the second decade of the present century. In the influx of emigrants many Catholics had settled in Brooklyn, but for religious worship were compelled to cross the East river to New York, to attend St. Peter's church, in Barclay street, the first and long the only Catholic church in that city. The present archbishop of New York, the Most Rev. John McClosky, is a native of Brooklyn, and remembers the time when he as a boy thus crossed to the neighboring city. [2]

This inconvenient condition of affairs was protracted by the general poverty of the people, and by the fact that the bishop of New York, to whose jurisdiction they belonged, was so destitute of clergymen, that he could send no one to endeavor to build up a church.

The Rev. John Power, pastor of St. Peter's church, New York, considering the Catholics in Brooklyn as part of his parish, frequently came over, and sent other clergymen to offer the sacrifice of the mass and preach the word of God, in private houses or such rooms as could be obtained.

The first Catholic service in Brooklyn is said to have been a mass celebrated at the residence of Mr. William Purcell, on the north-east corner of York and Gold Streets, by the Rev. Philip Larissy. Among other clergy who ministered to them from time to time were Rev. Michael O'Gorman, Rev. Patrick Bulger, Rev. Mr. McCauley and Rev. Mr. McKenna, the last named of whom died in Brooklyn and was interred in the ground finally secured for a church.

On the 7th of January, 1822, a meeting of the Catholics of Brooklyn convened at the house of Mr. Peter Turner, on the corner of Washington and Front streets, and it was resolved to take up earnestly the great work of erecting a church. Their number was small, a careful census of the Catholics in the village, revealing the fact that only seventy were able to contribute either in money or in labor. Mr. Cornelius Heeny offered lots on the corner of Congress and Court streets, as a site for the proposed church, but it was deemed inconvenient and the offer was declined.

St. James's Church. On the 2d of March, 1822, eight lots of land were purchased on the corner of Jay and Chapel streets, four hundred dollars being paid in cash, and three hundred more secured by 9, mortgage. The ground was blessed by Rev. Mr. Bulger on the 25th of April. Just two months later a building committee was appointed, consisting of Messrs. George S. Wise, Peter Turner, William Purcell, Quintin M. Sullivan and James Rose. Notwithstanding the difficulties attending the work, the edifice was so far completed that it was dedicated to divine worship, under the name of St. James, an the 28th of August, 1823, by the Right Rev. John Connelly, bishop of New York, assisted by the Rev. Dr. Power.

The building cost, including fences, $7,118.16. Besides those already named, Darby Dawson, James Freel and George McCloskey were active in the good work. A school was at once established, but for some time all efforts to secure a resident pastor failed. After the death of Bishop Connolly, the Very Rev. John Power, who became administrator of the diocese, appointed as pastor of St. James's church, the Rev. John Farnan, who thus became the first resident clergyman.

The clergy of the church from its organization have been: 1825-32, Rev. John Farnan, pastor; 1832-42, Rev. John Walsh, pastor; 1836-7, Rev. P. Dougherty; 1839, Rev. Philip Gillick; 1840, Rev. Patrick Danaher; 1841, Rev. J. McDonagh; 1842-47, Rev. Charles Smith, pastor; 1845-6, Rev. Jerome Nobriga; 1847-8, Rev. Patrick McKenna; 184852, Rev. James McDonough, pastor; 1849, Rev. Eugene McGuire; 1849-52, Rev. John Quinn.

At this time the Roman Catholic churches on Long Island had so increased from the small beginning at St. James, that the Holy See formed the island into a diocese, and the Very Rev. John Loughlin, then vicar general of New York, was appointed bishop of Brooklyn. He was consecrated in St. Patrick's cathedral, New York, on the 3d of October, 1853, by the Most Rev. Cajetan Bedini, archbishop of Thebes, then nuncio from the pope, and subsequently cardinal. Bishop Loughlin made St. James's church his cathedral. Clergy: 1852-7, Rev. Eugene Cassidy, rector; 1852-4, Rev. Samuel A. Mulledy; 1856-7, Rev. Thomas W. McCleery, Rev. D. Whelan; 1857-9, Rev. Thomas Walsh; 1857-60, Rev. John F. Turner; 1857-8, Rev. Bartholomew Gleason; 1859-60, Rev. Robert McGuire; 1859-60, Rev. Robert V. Moyce; 1864, Rev. Joseph Giraud; 1864-6, Rev. Francis J. Freel, D.D.; 1865-8, Rev. Thomas J. Gardner, D.D.; 1867-8, Rev. Eugene MeSherry.

Bishop Loughlin has secured a fine site for a cathedral on Lafayette avenue, between Carlton and Vanderbilt avenues, and is now erecting a splendid church, which will be the finest ecclesiastical structure on Long Island.[3]

The parish of St. James has maintained a school from the early period of its organization. At present this institution contains four hundred and ten boys under the charge of the brothers of the Christian schools.

St. Paul's Church. The plot of ground originally offered by Cornelius Heeny, Esq., became in time the site of the second Roman Catholic church in the city of Brooklyn. In 1836, the church of St. Paul was erected here. It is a substantial brick building, seventy-two feet by one hundred and twenty-five, and cost about $20,000; the land being then valued at $8,000 more.

The pastors and clergy of this church have been: Rev. Richard Waters, 1838-40; Rev. Nicholas O'Donnell, O.S.A., 1840-7; Rev. James O'DonneIl, O.S.A., 1840-4; Rev. William Hogan, 1845-8; Rev. Joseph A. Schneller, 1848-60; Rev. Hippolyte De Luynes, S.J., 1849-50; Rev. Joseph Regan, 1851-3; Rev. Timothy Farrell, 1852-3; Rev. John Curoe, 1852; Rev. John McShane, 1854-7; Rev. M. O'Reilly, 1854-5; Rev. B. Allaire, 1857-8; Rev. Peter C. Fagan, 1858-60; Rev. - McGerrish, 1862-3; Rev. Robert J. McGuire, 1863-9; Rev. V. Dallis, 1863-5; Rev. - Reddy, Rev. P. McGuire, Rev. John R. McDonald, 1863-4.

A school was established in connection with this church soon after its erection, and has since been regularly maintained. In 1840, it returned one hundred and fifty pupils. The boys' school under the direction of the brothers of the third order of St. Francis had, January 1, 1869, three hundred pupils; the girls' school under the Sisters of Charity, two hundred and forty.

German Church of the Holy Trinity. This church, located in Montrose avenue, near Ewen street (E. D.), was established in July, 1841, for the German Catholics whose numbers began to increase. It was rebuilt in 1853, the corner-stone having been laid by Archbishop Hughes, June 29, in that year. The site and edifice were obtained at the sole expense of first pastor, Rev. John Raffeiner, who directed it till his death, July 17, 1861.

Clergy: 1. Very Rev. John Raffeiner, V. G., Pastor, 1841-61 ; assistants, John Raffeiner, Jr., 1848-9; Rev. John Rauferisen, 1849-50; Rev. Maurus Ramaauer, 1850-1; Rev. Frederic Jung, 1851-2; Rev. Casper Metzler, 1853; Rev. Joseph Huber, 1853-6; Rev. Alois Enders, 1856-7; Rev. P. Albrecht, 1857-9; Rev. Michael May, 1859-61; Rev. John Hauptman, 1859-61. 2. Rev. M. May, pastor, 1861; assistants, Rev. John Hauptman, 1861-63; Rev. Anthony Arnold, 1862-6 ; Rev. Joseph Ulrech, 1865-6; Rev. Gustav Kamerer, 1866-9; Rev. Peter Deaffienbach, 1869; Rev. P. J. Schwarg, 1869. The schools are large, numbering in 1869, eight hundred boys and eight hundred and fifty girls.

St. Mary's Church, subsequently Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Williamsburgh. From about 1838, the Roman Catholic service was offered up in Williamsburgh, and the Catholics there were attended from time to time by the Rev. James O'Donnell, of St. Paul's. In 1841, St. Mary's church was organized, and remained under the pastoral charge of Rev. Mr. O'Donnell, until 1844, when the Rev. Sylvester Malone was appointed. He soon act about the erection of a larger and more commodious church edifice, the number of communicants having increased to three thousand. The new church was erected on Second street, between South Second and Third streets. The former title was not retained, and the new church was dedicated, May 7, 1848, under the patronage of St. Peter and St. Paul.

Pastors: Rev. Sylvester Malone, 1848-69; Rev. F. Huzanski, 1854-60; Rev. John C. Brady, 1856-7; Rev. Peter Fagan, 1857-9; Rev. Joseph Campbell, 1862-4; Rev. John Fagan, 1868; Rev. Philip O'Reilly, 1851-2, Rev. - Venuta, 1851-3; Rev. M. A. Wallace, 1854-5; Rev. P. McGovern, 1855-6.

The parish school, now under the direction of the Sisters of St. Joseph, contains five hundred girls and three hundred boys.

Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. This church, situated on the corner of York and Jay streets, was commenced by the Rev. John Farnan, the first pastor of St. James, as an independent church, during a period in which he had drawn on himself the censures of his ecclesiastical superiors and was no longer regarded as belonging to the Roman Catholic clergy of Brooklyn. Dr. Farnan had many friends in the city, and for a time the building went on, but was never opened, and on his reconciliation with his former superiors, the edifice was completed and dedicated in 1842, under its present title. The first pastor was the Rev. David W. Bacon, now bishop of Portland, in the state of Maine, to which flee he was appointed, April 29, 1855.

Clergy: Rev. (now Right Rev.) David W. Bacon, 1842-55; Rev. McKenna, 1845-6; Rev. Hugh Maguire, 1845-6; Rev. P. J. Vieira, 1852-4; Rev. William Keegan, 1852-69; Rev. Patrick Kelly, 1855-6; Rev. Patrick Bradley, 1856; Rev. P. V. Moyce, 1859; Rev. Gaudentius Ballustrini, 1858-60; Rev. Thomas Farrell, 1863-4; Rev. Thomas A. Reid, 1865-9.

St. Patrick's Church. This church is situated at the corner of Kent and Willoughby avenues. It was the first Roman Catholic church in East Brooklyn, and was commenced in 1848 by the Rev. Hugh Maguire, and was for some years known as the Wallabout church. It was dedicated in honor of St. Patrick, by Bishop Loughlin, on the 3d of August, 1856.

Clergy: Rev. Hugh Maguire, 1848-60; Rev. Patrick O'Neill, 1853-4; Rev. John Dowling, 1854-5; Rev. Henry O'Neill, 1857-8; Rev. Peter C. Fagan, 1863-4; Rev. John Andrew Casella, 1863-4; Rev. Edward Fitzpatrick, 1865-9; Rev. Michael Moran, 1867-9; Rev. J. Conlan, 1869.

St. Patrick's Academy. Adjoining St. Patrick's church, in Kent avenue, Father Fitzpatrick has commenced the erection of a new academy building, which promises to compete favorably with any similar institution now in the city. It will have a frontage of sixty feet and a depth of one hundred and eighteen feet. The front is to be of Philadelphia brick, with brown stone trimmings, and the design is neat and tasteful. It will be three stories in height. The first and second floors will be divided into class rooms, reception rooms, etc., while on the third floor will be a magnificently furnished hall for concerts, lectures, etc., one hundred and sixteen by fifty-six feet, which will supply a want long felt in that locality. The walls and ceiling of this hall will be finished with the finest fresco painting, and the furniture will be of the richest kind. The entire building, when completed, will cost somewhere between $50,000 and 75,000.

Church of St. Charles Borromeo. The Episcopal church on Sydney Place, occupied by the congregation now worshiping in Grace church, was purchased by the Roman Catholics in 1851, and the Rev. Charles Constantine Pise, then pastor of St. Peter's church in Barclay street, New York, and who, as having previously officiated as chaplain to congress, had attained a national reputation, was sent over by Archbishop Hughes to take charge of the new church and parish. Dr. Pise was a gentleman of the most refined tastes and scholarly attainments, and he soon gathered to his church a congregation of the elite of the Catholic population of the city. The plain interior of the church was adorned with superb fresco paintings, and the most eminent artists were employed in the choir, so that the church soon had a wide spread reputation in this latter department.

As the congregation increased, the necessity for a larger church edifice became more and more apparent, and in 1866, Dr. Pise purchased a plot of ground adjoining the church and pastoral residence, for $25,000, for a church site. Father Pise, however, did not survive to see the projected edifice built. He died on the 26th of May, 1867, and was succeeded by Dr. Friel, the present pastor. On the morning of Sunday, the 8th of March, 1868, the old church caught fire from a defective flue, and before the fire department could render assistance, it was almost entirely destroyed with its valuable organ and one of the finest collections of music in the country. The congregation was organized on the following Sunday in the Assembly Rooms in Washington street, which were leased for that purpose, and Father Friel, aided by the members of his congregation, went to work earnestly to collect money for the building of the new church, and three weeks after the old church had been burned down, the first shovelful of earth was dug for the foundation of the new church, and in the following August, the cornerstone was laid with great pomp and ceremony. The edifice, which was dedicated May 24, 1869, was designed by Mr. P. C. Keely, the eminent architect; is built in the English gothic style, of Philadelphia brick, trimmed with Belleville stone, and presents an exceedingly handsome exterior appearance. It is sixty-eight feet front on Sidney Place, one hundred and thirty feet deep, and over one hundred feet main height, with a handsome steeple one hundred feet high from the roof The altar is of white marble, richly chased and ornamented with -old. The pulpit and chancel railings are of black walnut, and the fourteen windows are of stained glass; it will seat altogether about one thousand three hundred people, and when completed, together with the repairs to the old church, which has now been converted into a handsome and commodious schoolhouse, will cost about $70,000. It is a somewhat remarkable fact that on one occasion the Rt. Rev. Levi Silliman Ives, as Episcopal bishop of North Carolina, ordained in this church the Rev. Donald Macleod, as a minister of the Episcopal church, and that not many years after they met again, both Roman Catholics, in this church, which had also like them become Roman Catholic.

Clergy: Rev. C. C. Pise, D.D., 1851-66; Rev. Joseph Franscioli, 1857-9; Rev. David O'Mullane, 1863-4; Rev. F. J. Free], D.D., 1866-9; Rev Thomas F. McGivern, 1866-9.

St. John's Church is situated on Twenty-first street and Fifth avenue. It was begun as early as 1851, but for some years had no settled pastor. Clergy: Rev. Peter McLoughlin, 1855-6; Rev. P. Maginn, 1856-7; Rev. P. McGovern, 1857-60; Rev. H. Maguire, 1863-9.

About 1850, a German church was begun on Montrose avenue as a mission from the Holy Trinity, and was sometimes known by that name. Clergy:

Rev. Maurice Ramsauer attended it in 1853-4; Rev. Bonaventure Keller in 1855-6.

St. Joseph's Church. This church, situated on Bedford avenue, between Pacific and Dean streets, was erected in 1852, and solemnly dedicated to divine worship by Archbishop Hughes in April, 1853, who delivered an able discourse on the occasion. Clergy: Rev. P. O'Neill, 1852-69; Rev. Edward Corcoran, 1864-9; Rev. Peter Kearney, 1867-9; Rev. William O'Donnell, 1868-9.

St. Mary's Star of the Sea. This church on Court street, at the corner of Luqueer, was erected chiefly through the exertions of Rev. Mr. Bacon, now bishop of Portland. It is about one hundred and fifty feet in length by seventy in width, and seats comfortably about one thousand eight hundred persons. The corner-stone was laid, July 17, 1854, Archbishop Hughes preaching on the occasion, and the church was dedicated April 29, 1855. Clergy: Rev. James McGinness, 1855-7; Rev. J. McKenna, 1855-8; Rev. Eugene Cassidy, 1857-69; Rev. Stephen Cassidy, 1858-61, died October 17 ; Rev. Thomas Taaffe, 1861-8 ; Rev. - Bohan, 1862-3; Rev. M. J. Goodwin, 1869.

Church of the Immaculate Conception. This church, situated on the corner of Remsen and Leonard streets, was commenced in 1853, the cornerstone having been laid on the first day of August in that year, by the Very Rev. J. Loughlin, now bishop of Brooklyn. It is a substantial brick structure, on a solid stone foundation; it is sixty-one feet front by one hundred and two feet deep. The front is Elizabethan, and on each side of the entrance there are three massive pillars. Over the entrance is inscribed, 11 St. Mary's of the Immaculate Conception, built,- A. D. 1854.11 On the right is a figure of Faith, and on the left one of the Blessed Virgin, with appropriate inscriptions. The interior is neatly and tastefully decorated, and the altar and organ are both fine. Including the lot, the church cost $30,000. Clergy: Rev. Peter McLaughlin, 1853-4; Rev. Anthony Farrelly, 1854-5; Rev. A. Bohan, 1855-64; Rev. John R. McDonald, [4] 1864-9; Rev. William McClosky, 1866-7; Rev. Thomas Shanley, 1867-9.

St. Benedict's Church. This Roman Catholic church for Germans was dedicated September 4, 1853. It was on Flushing avenue. It is now on Herkimer street, near Ralph avenue. Its pastors have been: Rev. M. Ramsauer, 1855-6 ; Rev. Bonaventure Keller, 1856-8; Rev. A. Enders, 1857-8; Rev. Joseph Tuboly, 1858-63; Rev. T. Albrecht, 1861-2; Rev. F. Klosterbauer, 1863-9.

St. Malachi's Church. This church was begun in 1854, to accommodate the Roman Catholics of East Now York, now the 9th ward. It is a neat wooden structure, thirty-eight feet front, on Van Sicklin avenue, extending back fiftyeight feet, with a height of twenty-eight. Its cost was paid almost entirely by the congregation. Clergy : Rev. Andrew Bohan, 1854; Rev. P. Creighton, 1864-8; Rev. Michael Carroll, 1868-9.

St. Michael's. This German church is in East New York. Clergy: Rev. J. Piene, 1864-5; Rev. Casper Muller, 1866-9.

Church of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. This church on Ewen street and Van Brunt, was begun in 1854, and dedicated October 29, 1855, by Bishop Loughlin. Clergy: Rev. Timothy O'Farrell, 1854-69; Rev. Edward Corcoran, 1863-4; Rev. John Cummings, 1865-6; Rev. Isaac Miguely Diaz, 1868-9.

Church of St. Boniface. In 1853 the Episcopal church of St. Thomas, at the corner of Willoughby and Bridge streets, was purchased by a German Catholic congregation, and was dedicated to Roman Catholic worship, under the title of Church of St. Boniface, January 29, 1854, by Bishop Loughlin. Its pastors have been: Rev. M. Ramsauer, 18556; Rev. B. Keller, 1857-8; Rev. Joseph Brunemann, 1858-9; Rev. John G. Hummel, 1859-64; Rev. Michael J. Decker, 1864-8; Rev. W. Oberschneider, 1868-9.

Church of St. Francis. This is another German church on Putnam avenue, begun in 1857, by the Rev. Bonaventure Keller, who attended it in that and the following year. It was then attended from the church of the Holy Trinity till 1866, when the Rev. N. Balleis was placed in charge and has since been pastor.

Church of Our Lady of Mercy. This church on Debevoise street, near DeKalb avenue, was begun in 1857. Its style is the mixed gothic, the material being brick with brown stone trimmings. It is one hundred and fifty feet deep and sixty-five feet in width, and has seating accommodations for one thousand nine hundred persons. The exterior of the building is exceedingly plain, but the interior in its handsome finish presents a remarkable contrast. It cost about $70,000, and was dedicated on the 7th of February, 1869. Clergy: Rev. John McCarthy, 1857-8; Rev. John McKenna, 1858-68; Rev. Bernard Gerrety, 1859-60; Rev. Martin Carroll, 1865-8; Rev. M. J. Goodwin, 1867-8; Rev. Thomas Taaffe, 1868-9; Rev. James McElroy, 1868-9.

Church of St. Anthony. About the year 1857, a Roman Catholic church of this title was commenced on India street, for the Catholics in that part of the city. It has ever since its establishment been under the pastoral care of the Rev. John Brady.

St. Peter's Church. A very handsome church of this name was begun in 1859, on the corner of Hicks and Warren streets. Including the parsonage, it is one hundred and sixty-eight feet deep, and has a front of sixtyfive feet. It is romanesque in style, and was erected under the direction of P. C. Keeley, architect. The interior is adorned with very fine frescoes by Francis Angelo and Marco Crescionim. The church was completed in one year by the zealous exertions of the pastor, Rev. Joseph Fransioli. Clergy: Rev. Joseph Fransioli, 1859-69; Rev. Arthur J. Dorris, 1864-6, Rev. Michael J. Goodwin, 1865-7; Rev. - Gualco, 1867-8; Rev. John H. Pollard, 1867-9; Rev. John A. Casella, 1868-9.

St. Anne's Church. On the 21st of August., 1860, the ground was broken for the erection of a Roman Catholic church on the south-west corner of Front and Gold streets. It is a brick edifice, sixty feet in front, on Front street, by one hundred and twenty-two, with a tower one hundred and thirty feet high. It was erected under the superintendence of Mr. P. C. Keeley, and cost $15,000, exclusive of the land. Clergy : Rev. Bartholomew Gleeson, 1863-9; Rev. Thomas Shanley, O.S.A., 1866-7; Rev. William McClosky, 1867-9.

Church of St. Vincent de Paul. About 1863, a church with this title was begun on North Sixth street, near Fifth street, under the direction of the Rev. Bernard McGorrisk. He was succeeded in 1865 by Rev. David O'Mullane, who with his assistant, Rev. Michael Moran, began preparations for erecting a more spacious and imposing church edifice. The work began June 2, 1868, the corner-stone of the new building was laid July 18, 1868, with imposing ceremonies. The church is gothic and built of Belleville gray stone, with Ohio stone trimmings, and is sixty-eight feet front by one hundred and fifty-six feet deep. It was dedicated Oct. 17, 1869, and will cost when completed, about $125,000. The architect was Mr. P. C. Keeley, it being the three hundred and eighty-fifth church on which lie had been engaged. Clergy: Rev. Bernard McGorrisk, 1863-6 ; Rev. David O'Mullane, 1865-9, Rev. Michael Moran, 1865-6; Rev. Thomas McNally, 1866-7; Rev. John Crimmin, 1867-9.

Church of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. This German church on the corner of North Fifth and Seventh streets, began about 1863. Rev. John Hauptman, pastor.

St. Nicholas's Church. Under this title a church was erected in 1863, on the corner of Olive, and Powers streets. Rev. J. Peine, pastor, 1866-7.

St. Stephen's Church. On Carroll street, near Hicks, is this church, purchased from the Episcopalians in 1866. Clergy: Rev. A. J. Dorris, 1866-9: Rev. Louis Rhatigan, 1867-9; Rev. James Moran, 1869.

Church of All Saints. This church, on the corner of Throop avenue and Thornton street, was began in 1867. Pastor, Rev. Anthony Arnold, 1867-9.

Church of St Mary, Queen of the Isles. This church is on Willoughby avenue, between Lewis and Stuyvesant avenues, and was begun in 1868. Clergy: Rev. John Joseph Quigley, C. M., 1868-9; Rev. Edward M. Smith, C. M., 18689.

Church of Our Lady of Victory. In 1868, the site of a new Roman Catholic church was obtained on Throop avenue, between Macon and McDonough streets, and a temporary frame structure put up and dedicated to divine service July 26, 1868. The dimensions of this temporary structure are seventy feet by forty, with a height of fifty feet. Rev. P. Creighton, pastor, 1868-9.

Church of St. Louis, corner of Ewen and McKibben streets, E. D., is a plain frame structure, seventy-five by fortyfive feet, without much claim to architectural beauty, but commodious and well ventilated. Its cost was $25,000, and it was erected by the French Catholics of the Eastern District. It was dedicated July 18, 1869. Father Jollen, pastor.

Roman Catholic Institutions.

College of St. John the Baptist, attached to the church of the same name, corner of Lewis street and Willoughby avenue. This institution is to be open to all sects, and will sustain the same relation to Brooklyn as the Sixteenth Street College does to New York city. The church, at the head of which, are Rev. Fathers John Quigley, C. M., and Edward Smith, C. M., was commenced about July, 1868, in the rooms of the small frame dwelling of the pastor, and now numbers six hundred members, and they have a large frame meeting house on Willoughby avenue. Near it, and fronting on Lewis street is the college. This will be of brick, mounted with North River blue-stone, and will cost $43,000. The building will have a body and two wings, the body being of dimensions seventy-two feet by twentyseven feet, and the wings, one hundred and eighteen by sixty-one. It will be three stories high, with French roof and dormant windows. Its cornerstone was laid by Rt. Rev. Bishop Loughlin, on the 25th of July, 1869. The cost of the entire college, when completed and furnished, is estimated at $150,000; and when completed will be formally opened and placed under the charge of the members of the order of Lazarus, by whom the educational department is to be conducted. The architect of the building is P. C. Keeley.

Sisters of Charity. This well known order, founded in France by St. Vincent de Paul, was established in America by Mrs. Eliza Ann Seton, a native of the state of New York. The first house was at Emmitsburgh, Maryland, from which it has spread all over the United States.

In Brooklyn they have (since 1836), directed the Female Orphan Asylum, at the corner of Clinton and Congress streets, now containing five hundred and twenty-three orphans, Sister Constantia being the superior. They have also the direction of an Industrial School attended by one hundred and twenty-three girls, as well as the parish schools connected with St. Paul's church, containing two hundred and forty pupils, and at the Church of the Assumption with six hundred pupils.

Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum (female department, corner of Congress and Clinton streets, and male department on Wyckoff street, near Albany avenue) was founded by a society organized in 1829. Mr. Peter Turner, to whose zeal the society was deeply indebted for its success, was chosen first president, holding the position for three years, the longest term allowed by the constitution, and was succeeded by Dr. J. S. Thorn. On 6th of May, 1834. the society was incorporated by the legislature, under the title of The Roman Catholic Orphan Society in the Village of Brooklyn; the names mentioned in the act being those of J. Sullivan Thorne, Thomas Mooney, John Sweeney, Peter Turner and Charles Brady. The charter was applied for, at this time, in order that the society might receive a legal transfer of a house and lot offered to the society by the Rev. John Walsh, and in this house, 188 Jay street, the first asylum was opened and placed in charge of the Sisters of Charity. Some years after Mr. Cornelius Heeney [5] generously donated to this society, ten lots of ground on Congress street; and at his death, in 1848, bequeathed the income of the greater portion of his large estate for the support of the orphans. [6] I The donation of lots enabled the society to build their first asylum, that fronting on Congress street, for male children, and the one fronting on Clinton, on the same lots, for females. In 1851, an addition was made to the Female Asylum, doubling its size, at a cost of $5,000; and in 1858, a further addition of a building one hundred and fiftyfive by twenty-five feet, and five stories high, at a cost of $15,000, connecting with the Male Asylum on Clinton street. [7] In 1858, a new building was erected for males, on Bedford avenue, at a cost of about $27,000, and accommodating three hundred and fifty children. The building had a front of one hundred and twenty feet, and two wings seventy-two feet deep, and the grounds attached comprised fourteen acres. This building was destroyed by fire, November 9, 1862, two hundred and forty-eight children being asleep within its walls when the fire broke out, and a snow storm raging without. Three children perished in the flames. The children were immediately removed, the girls to the building on Clinton and Congress streets, and the boys to a house on the corner of Jay and Chapel streets, which had been previously occupied by the Sisters of Mercy. Lots were shortly purchased bounded by Albany and Troy avenues and Wyckoff and Warren streets, upon which, in 1865, was commenced, a stone edifice, of one hundred and seventy feet front, with wings each one hundred and seventy feet deep, and three stories above the basement in height. One. wing of this was completed and the boys removed to it from the establishment in Jay street, in the fall of 1868, and the institution placed under the care of the Sisters of St. Joseph. The building is steadily progressing, and when completed will afford accommodation for one thousand two hundred boys.

In the summer of 1869, the corner-stone of a Female Orphan Asylum was laid, at the corner of Willoughby and Gates avenues, and it is designed to accommodate the girls until they are twelve years of age, when they are sent back to the establishment in Clinton street, where they are put to work certain hours of the day at the needle. The whole asylum is clothed by the work of these girls. The clothes are made by them, and the materials bought by the proceeds of the work which they do for the stores, and the work of the household, is done by the older girls. In this way the institution is mainly self-supporting, and its only other resources are the small portion of the amount the Board of Education appropriates to the orphan asylums of the city, and such collections as may be made in churches at Easter and Christmas for this purpose. The new institution will be built after the modern French style, with a stone basement and the remainder of brick, trimmed with Ohio and Belleville stone; with a frontage on Willoughby avenue of two hundred feet; at each end two wings eighty-five feet deep, and in the centre of the quadrangle, formed by the front and wings of the main building, will be erected a beautiful gothic chapel, separate and distinct from the main building, fifty by eighty-five feet, and finished in the most gorgeous style. When completed, this building will accommodate about eight hundred children, and will cost about $125,000. The building is to be completed within a year, and will be placed under the charge of the Sisters of Charity, now at St. Paul's church, in Court street.

St. Mary's Female Hospital, No. 153 Clinton street, founded in the year 1867, is also under the direction of the Sisters of St. Joseph. In less than six months after its opening, June 9, 1868, it received three hundred and eighteen patients.

Visitation Convent and Academy. This conventual establishment, on the corner of Johnson and Pearl streets, embraces also a young ladies academy of a high order, containing one hundred and twenty pupils.

The Visitation order was founded Annecy in Savoy, June 6, 1610, by St. Jane Frances do Chantal, a French widow lady, and grandmother of the celebrated Madame de Sevigne. The constitutions of the order were drawn up by St. Francis de Sales, the director of St. Jane. The first Visitation convent was formally established by Miss Alice Lalor and thirteen associates at Georgetown in the District of Columbia in 1813. The monastery in Brooklyn was founded September 24, 1855, by Mother Mary Juliana Mat, thews with six choir religious and two out sisters.

The habit worn by these ladies is very simple, black with long white sleeves; their veil is plain and black. They wear a black band over the forehead and a guimpe of white linen descending nearly to the waist without any fold. A silver cross on the breast and a black rosary in the girdle complete the attire. The superior is Mother Mary Liguori Wernig.

St. Francis of Assisium, Convent of the Sisters of Mercy. The Sisters of Mercy are a recent order, founded in Ireland in 1827, by Catherine McAuIey, with a view especially of devoting themselves to the service of the sick and poor. The first house in the United States was that established at Pittsburgh in 1843. That of Brooklyn was founded in 1855, and numbers six professed and two lay sisters. The present superior is Mother Mary Vincent Haire. Their operations include many works beneficial to the community at large. They direct a select school for young ladies which has eighty pupils; a free school of two hundred pupils; an orphan asylum containing seventy orphans, and an industrial school in which sixty girls are taught and provided with employment.

Convent of the Sisters of St. Dominic. The order of St. Dominic was founded in 1216, by St. Dominic de Guzman and, if we are to believe the voyages of the Zeni brothers, had convents in Greenland in 1380. Their first establishment in the United States was in 1805. Not long after, a convent of Sisters of the third order of St. Dominic was established in Kentucky. The house in Brooklyn is, however, a filiation from a Bavarian convent and was established in 1852. It is situated on Montrose and Graham avenues. The superior is Sister Seraphina Staimer. The community consists of twentytwo professed, nine novices and six postulants.

Convents of the Sisters of St. Joseph. The Sisters of St. Joseph were founded at Puy, October 15, 1650, by Father John Peter Medaille. They were introduced into the United States in 1836, by Bishop Rosati of St. Louis. The first house in Brooklyn was established in 1856. St. Mary's Convent, on Grand street near Graham avenue, has now as prioress, Sister Mary John. They direct an academy for young ladies with eighty pupils; and a free school with four hundred and twenty pupils.

St. Joseph's Academy of the same order, at No. 34 South Third street, has one hundred and fifty pupils, Sister Mary Baptista being superior. Their chief establishment on Long Island is at Flushing.

Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis. This community have a house at the corner of Warren and Hicks streets, Sister Hildegard being superior. They embrace seven professed sisters, four novices and three postulants. They devote themselves to the care of the sick and infirm, and have forty patients.

Brothers of the Christian Schools. This community, founded in France by the venerable De la Salle, was introduced into the United States in 1846. In Brooklyn they direct at St. James's Cathedral a parish school of four hundred and ten boys.

Monastery of St. Francis of Assisi. This institution at Nos. 19, 21, 23 Butler street, is occupied by the Franciscan Brothers, an order devoted to the cause of education. The community numbers nineteen professed brothers, thirteen novices, and sixteen postulants. Brother Jerome is the superior. The house was founded in 1860. They direct an academy with one hundred and seventy-five pupils at Nos. 22 and 24 East Baltic street, and direct parish schools in various parts of the city.

Little Sisters of the Poor. This modest conventual establishment, at No. 608 DeKalb avenue, is directed by seven sisters. The order was founded at St. Servan, France, in 1840, by two devoted women who consecrated their lives to the care of the aged poor. Their establishment in Brooklyn was begun in 1869, and it already occupies three houses. The sisters have no revenues, they depend on charity, and what they can collect. They receive anything that can be used for food or clothing, and in this way provide in health and sickness for their large dependent family.


[1] This sketch of the Catholic churches of Brooklyn was prepared for this work by our friend, John 0. Shea, LL.D., the learned historian of the church in America; and was published In The New York Tablet (August, 1869), for the purpose of obtaining criticisms and corrections before its appearance in these pages. It has received a few additions and corrections from the author of this history. BACK

[2] See page 166 of second volume. BACK

[3] The corner-stone was laid with much pomp and ceremony, by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Loughlin, on the 21st of June, 1868; and an address was delivered by the Most Rev. Archbishop McClosky, of New York, in the course of which the speaker thus alluded to his own earlier recollections of Brooklyn: "And well may you rejoice on the day and on the occasion which is to be ever memorable to the Catholics of this city and of this diocese, a day which recalls so many memories, such, in part at least, as were awakened in the hearts of old; for many there are who bad hardly hoped to see this day. Of that-number I can mention one, and it is he who now addresses you. His first and earliest memories are here.' He first saw the light of heaven and breathed the breath of life in what was then but the little village of Brooklyn. He well remembers the day when there was neither Catholic church nor chapel, neither priest nor altar, within all these surrounding$. He remembers when, as a youth, when Sunday morning came, be, as one of a happy group, wended his way along the shore to what was then called Hicks' ferry, to cross the river, not in elegant and graceful steamers as now, but in an old and dingy horse boat; going, led by the hand of tender and loving parents, to assist at the sacrifice of mass in the old brick church of St. Peter's, in Barclay street. How little could he then have dreamed ever to have witnessed a spectacle such as this; to have stood here in the capacity in which he now stands, in such a presence, to see the foundations laid and the comer-stone blessed and consecrated by a bishop of Brooklyn, surrounded by prelates from other sees and dioceses, by a numerous clergy from far and near, and by such a vast and innumerable concourse of people, brought together to take part as it were, in the beginning of such a glorious work, a work which is to rear itself up in grand and goodly proportions before the eyes of men, and stands a monument of your Catholic faith, your Catholic generosity, and your Catholic zeal; stands as a monument too, of Catholic genius, Catholic architectural taste and skill, and to be, besides, looked upon, as It will be, as adding a newer beauty, and another glory, and another honor, and another source of pride to what Is already the renowned city of churches." BACK

[4] For biography, see No. 20 of Preachers of Brooklyn, Brooklyn Eagle, July 27,1869. BACK

[5] Cornelius Heeney, a native of Queens Co., Ireland, came to America in 1784, when he wag about twenty-seven years old. The vessel in which he sailed was struck by lightning and wrecked in Delaware bay, and he with others of the passengers and crew were rescued from the wreck in oyster boats, which had been plying their vocation In the bay. The captain of the boat in which Heeney and some others came ashore, demanded a dollar from each, which they all cheerfully paid except Heeney, who had not the amount to give. In this dilemma he applied to a Friend for the loan of the needed sum, which was immediately handed to him; and, when he enquired the name of his benefactor, with a view to ultimate repayment, the kind Quaker simply replied, 14 Whenever thou seest a fellow creature in want of a dollar as thou art now, give it to him, and thou wilt have repaid me " - a circumstance which made a lasting impression upon Mr. Heeney's mind. Arriving at Philadelphia he entered the service of Mr. Mead, a lumber merchant and a Quaker, and in a short time his good qualities attracted the attention of the bookkeeper, who advised him to push his fortunes in New York city. Arriving there lie was employed by a Mr. Backhouse, a leading merchant, and the only one in New York, who at that time sold exchange on England, and who was also a Quaker. In Mr. Backhouse's establishment he became acquainted with John Jacob Astor, then a porter, and when Mr. Backhouse subsequently retired from business, he sold out to Heeney and Astor, who went into partnership. Astor went to England on the firm business and remained there for over a year. He was then illiterate and rather inexpert in business, while Heeney was an excellent accountant and bookkeeper. On his return a misunderstanding arose between the partners. Astor not being able to comprehend the condition of the business from an inspection of -the books, and intimating some suspicion that affairs had not been properly conducted in his absence, Heeney immediately dissolved the partnership and, for many years, carried on the fur business himself. He purchased a three story building with a store underneath, at 82 Water street, New York, which he occupied until it was destroyed by the great fire of 1835, and for many years, traded in furs, purchasing for himself in Canada, and amassing a considerable fortune. In order to secure a debt of $30,000, he took the large property in South Brooklyn, near the South ferry, then supposed not to be an adequate equivalent for the debt, but which, at the time of his death, was valued at over $200,000. After the purchase of this property, he made it his summer residence, and when his Water street house was burned down, lie removed permanently to Brooklyn where he spent the remainder of his days. Mr. Heeney lived and died a bachelor, yet his was a character peculiarly adapted for domestic enjoyment. Pleasant and affable in disposition, fond of joke and repartee, warm hearted and social, his doors, from the time he first established himself in a home, were ever open to a friend and acquaintance, and never closed on the needy and unfortunate. His house was ever filled with orphan children, whom lie educated and provided for; and many of his female proteges married into most respectable families in New York and Brooklyn, where their descendants now occupy enviable positions in society. He was a strong advocate of juvenile education; very fond of questioning children to test their mental capacity; and always happiest when ministering to their intellectual wants or childish pleasures. His Brooklyn property contained a fine orchard, and during the active years of his life, he was in the habit every summer, of marshaling the little orphan children of the New York Orphan Asylum, and marching with them through Broadway and across the river to the orchard, where he had men employed to shake the trees and pull cherries, apples and each kind of fruit in its season, while the children ate and played on the grass. He also purchased wood and distributed it to the poor, gratuitously giving to each what they could carry; and lie took a humorous delight in seeing the loads they would assume, it being a common custom to divest themselves of a portion of the burden as soon as some intervening fence or other obstruction concealed them from his view, in order to return for it ; his enjoyment of the artifice being increased by the knowledge he had of its performance, and the efforts to hide what lie instantly connived at. At Christmas, also, he used to collect all the poor children in the vicinity, and give to each a cake and piece of silver. Though rarely mingling in politics, he once served a term as member of the assembly of the state, and many anecdotes are related concerning his shrewdness and good nature. To the Brooklyn Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum, he gave, in 1829, an endowment of $18,000; about the same time lie generously extended a helping hand to St. Paul's cathedral in New York ; donated the ground for St. James's and St. Paul's churches, Brooklyn ; was one of the founders of the Roman Catholic Half Orphan Asylum of New York, and contributed largely to several of the charitable associations of that city. Although Mr. Heeney's Brooklyn property increased in value with almost fabulous rapidity, yet, at his death, 3d of May, 1848 (at the age of ninety-four years), his estate was worth little more than $15,000. It is estimated, however, that his donations and expenditures for benevolent purposes, during his lifetime, was not far short of $100,000. His residuary estate (after proper provision made for relatives and friends), was devised as follows; The annual income of one fifth, to be appropriated every year towards supplying the poor of Brooklyn with fuel during winter. The annual income of one-tenth, to be appropriated towards supplying poor children in Brooklyn, who go to school, with shoes, and with such other articles of clothing as are absolutely necessary for their health and comfort during the winter. The sum of $250 annually for employment of a teacher to instruct poor children in Brooklyn, in the elements of an English education. The residue to the Brooklyn Catholic Half Orphan Asylum; a portion to be expended in erecting additional buildings. If anything intervened to prevent the fulfillment of this bequest, it was to go to the New York Catholic Orphan Asylum. By a codicil, however, which was added to this will, after the incorporation of the Brooklyn Benevolent Society, all the residuary estate was given to that association. Some lots in New York, adjoining the New York Catholic Orphan Asylum, were given to that institution, after the death of parties to whom he devised them as legatees. Mr. Heeney's remains were interred in the rear of St. Paul's Church, in Court street, Brooklyn. For further particulars of his life, etc., see Common Council Manual of Brooklyn for 1864, 545. BACK

[6] This property is held in trust by the trustees and associates of the Brooklyn Benevolent Society, and the institution also receives the proceeds of the annual ball of the Emerald Benevolent Society of Brooklyn. BACK

[7] In 1856, a fair was held from which was realized $9,000. A portion of this was given to the boys' division on, and with the other portion, a house on Clinton street was bought. A building was erected connecting the two houses, the old one was very much enlarged and for these a large debt was incurred, but by the exertions of the sisters, without calling upon outside help, the debt has been entirely paid off The new building, thus bought and built, was made an industrial school. BACK