--London Cyclist, Jan/Feb 1990. London Cycling Campaign.
Thus, the expression "transportational bicycling" alerts the audience to the speaker's awareness that other kinds of bicycling exist from which transportational bicycling is being distinguished by the modifier "transportational;" just as you might say a "tall tree", implying there are trees that are other wise, or a "racing car," implying there are cars with uses other than racing.
--Mary Frances Dunham, personal correspondence, February 10, 1990.
--Bikeway Planning and Policy Guidelines for NYC, Manhattan Commuter Bicycle System Study, July, 1978. Prepared for NYC DOT; Prepared by Edwards and Kelcey, in association with Transportation Alternatives.
--Marda Formann Mayo, Bicycling and Air Quality Information Document, prepared for USEPA by Abt Associates, Sept. 1979.
--Bicycle Transportation for Energy Conservation, a report of the Secretary of Transportation to the President and the Congress, April 1980.
Any urban center observed from a birds-eye view would project a similar impression as would some other natural habitats created instinctively by another animal species. Outdoor activities in the inner spaces between structures (mostly streets and squares) will manifest themselves into patterns of circulations flowing through the streets and an in-and-out circulation between buildings and streets. Such two patterns of activities in continuous motion may be observed as chaotic and erratic from a high altitude, but as one would get closer, all the details of urban life become more clear down to a point in which all the details get into focus. The public spaces bring into view a busy scene of activities that create almost a choreographical effect. The streets are indeed the stage where people perform in the open view their individual tasks that although dictated by their own needs, seem to be centrally coordinated like the roles of individual actors performing in a theatrical play. Acting and interacting smoothly, scores of human performers enter and exit the stage as they appear and disappear from buildings, or flow in the pedestrian traffic, or enter the moving capsules called "automobiles." ......
The other aspects concerning the encapsulation of automobile occupants within the metal shell of the vehicle are by all means factors of great significance that need some comments when looking at the urban traffic in a holistic approach. The term "encapsulation" used in this context is intended to describe the physical and psychological conditions that are indeed the reality of urban life. In practical terms, the vast majority of city residents find themselves encapsulated for hours a on a daily basis in a sterile setting. This removes them from positive social interactions with other human beings while, on the other hand, it brings them into negative interactions in the enervating and stressful competition that arises between drivers. In such artificial conditions the spiritual solitude of such encapsulation and the frustration of competing in slow, irregular motions of stop-and-go in close contact, side-to-side and front-to-back, may create high levels of psychological stress. This stress finds many ways of manifesting irritability and often violence can indeed be observed on a very frequent basis and it is a widely known phenomenon that would definitely not be disputed.
While such negative aspects of automobile city traveling conditions are indeed sufficient cause for a major re-evaluation of urban life, the missed opportunities of positive human exchanges in more calm settings are even better reasons for constructive actions. It is in this respect, in fact, that the re-evaluation of bicycling as an urban transportation mode finds a viable forum in which new ideas can effectively be proposed by city planners and any other professionals interested in quality of life....
parking facilities could be associated to an ancillary activity such as concession stands, for instance, which in the case of theoretically unsupervised conditions, would offer a certain degree of protection against vandalism or obvious theft attempts. In the case of totally supervised conditions, such ancillary establishments would help to reduce the cost of attendants through a supplementary income provided by the concession.
-- Dr. Michele Melarango, Dr. C.E., P.E., Regaining the Human Scale Through Urban Bicycling. 1989 Prof. of architecture and building sciences at the univ. of No. Carolina at Charlotte
--Based on a presentation by V. Setty Pendakur (Professor, University of British Columbia); Ecocity Conference 1990 Report of the First International Ecocity Conference, Edited by Christopher Canfield. Published by Urban Ecology, POB 10144, Berkeley, CA 94709. Tel. 415/549- 1724
The European experience shows that widespread bicycle use in everyday travel is possible, and the implementation of strategies to substitute bicycle use for auto use can be encouraged. These strategies include: creating positive images for the bicycle, the cyclists and the cyclists' supporters; establishing an extensive bicycle network that is superior to the auto network (including bike and ride facilities with public transportation); introducing restrictions on auto use; and focusing urban planning on reducing travel distance.
--Jim Freemont, Proceedings from Pro Bike 88. Bike Federation, 1818 R St. NW, Washington, DC. 20009. 202/332-6986.
Correspondence- Currently, we spend over 20 hours a week just answering our many letters, requests, etc. I have spoken to the Mayor's office, and they have agreed to stop sending mail directly to our office. However, it is safe to assume- particularly if the ban goes into effect- that this will continue to take up a significant amount of time (this alone could conceivably take up John's 19 hours a week).
--George Paul Apostolakos, Proposals for Bicycle Policy, NYCDOT March 1988. This was written upon his departure from the post of bicycle coordinator.
(ix) programs to limit poritons of road surfaces or certain sections of the metropolitan area to the use of nonmotorized vehicles or pedestrian use, both as to time and place;
(x) provisions for eployer participation in programs to encourage carpooling, vanpooling, mass transit, bicycling, and walking;
(xi) programs for secure bicycle stroage facilities and other facilites, including bicycle lanes, for the convenience and protection of bicyclists, in both public and private areas;
[33 states took advantage of these measures when drawing up their State Implementation Plans in 1979. According to How To Promote Bicycling as a Pollution Solution, (June 1989). League of American Bicyclists.
(xv) programs to reduce emissions by improvements in traffic flow;
--How To Promote Bicycling as a Pollution Solution, (June 1989). League of American Bicyclists.
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