© Copyright 1995-2020, Clay Irving <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Manhattan Beach, CA USA
|When Thai words are represented as English equivalents, words are often spelled differently depending on the translator. A g may be written as a k, a t as a d, a k as a kh, an oo as a u, a bp (yes, that's a Thai consonant) as a b, etc... I have attempted to provide different spellings of the words as I've seen in recipes. But, as my Thai language teacher says, you need to be flexible.|
Click on picture to enlarge
|English Representation||Thai Word or Phrase||Meaning|
|masaman||มัสมั่น||"Musselman" or Islamic origin|
As in Gaeng Massaman Kaa (Curry Paste) แกงมัสมั่นข่า
|phiset||"Special", big serving|
Amaranthus spinosus. also known as spiny amaranth, prickly amaranth or thorny amaranth.
|ma khaen||มะแข่วน||มะแข่น in Lao, Zanthozylum limonella Alston — An acrid pungent spice from Northern Thailand used in making Lap.|
|nam pla||น้ำปล่า||Fish Sauce (pronounced "nam plah")|
|nam pla phrik||น้ำปล่าพริก||Fish Sauce with thinly sliced prik ki nu|
Allium sativum, sometimes pronounced "grow-tee".
|kung kam kram||กุ้งก้ามกราม||River Prawns, Spiny-Clawed Prawn, Giant Freshwater Prawn, Freshwater Lobster|
Macrobrachium rosenbergii. I've also seen them called goong maae nam, กุ้งแม่น้ำ, literally "river prawns". These are the prawns with the long second walking leg and a large spiny pincher. Spiny-clawed prawns with blue bodies are more tender when broiled or baked than those with grey-green bodies. Smaller spiny-clawed prawns are called goong naang กุ้งนาง.
|nam tan pep||น้ำตาลปี๊บ||Palm Sugar|
Made from the sap of the sugar palm, or palmyra palm, Borassus Flabellifera, called taan in Thai. The sugar is a light golden brown paste or dried cake with a distinctive flavor and fragrance. It is put up in five-gallon kerosine cans, called peep in Thailand.
|krathiam chiao (gratium jiaw)||กระเทียมเจียว||Fried Garlic|
A convenient delicious topping for noodles and rice dishes.
|krathiam dong||กระเทียมดอง||Pickled Garlic|
|kaolao||เกาเหลา||A Chinese-style clear soup that has no noodles|
In Thai "noodle" is sen, เส้น, so ordering kaolao means not eating sen. In Thai slang mai gin sen, ไม่กินเส้น, means "do not like or love each other", so kaolao could mean the same. In fact, there is a cartoon series in the Thai newspaper, Matichon, มติชน, called kaolao ruam mit, เกาเหลารวมมิตร, or "gathering of people who don't like each other".
|chu chi||ฉูฉี่||A Thai Curry|
|oua||อั่ว||A bean curry|
|kham||คำ||A mouthful or bite, morsel|
A savory wrapped in leaves, like hors d'oeuvre.
|luk (look)||หิน||A small ball or a fruit|
|paesa||แป๊ะซะ||A whole fish|
Usually pla chon, ปลาช่อน, steamed and eaten with a sauce.
Acacia pennata. The feathery shoots are used in soups, curries, omlettes, and stir fries.
To put in or add, as in ไส่กะปิ (add kapi).
|nam chan||น้ำจัฌฑ์||Alcohol, liquor|
|nam mao||น้ำเมา||Alcoholic beverage|
|ongkuli||องคุลิ||An old unit of measure from the tip of your index finger to the first joint|
It is named after Ongkuliman, องคุลิมาล, an ancient villain in Buddhist scripture. Ongkuliman was deceived by his teacher and told that the only way he will attain enlightenment is to kill 1,000 people. He tries to kill only bad people, and to keep track of his victims, he cuts off a finger from the right hand of his victims. He wears the fingers around his neck to keep track of them (thus earning the name Ongkuliman, "the wearer of a garland of fingers". Eventually, he meets Buddha and he becomes a Buddhist monk. How does this relate to Thai food? — It is how you measure the depth of the water in the rice pot when steaming rice (regular pot or rice cooker, it doesn't matter). Pour in water until you can touch the rice on the bottom with the tip of your index finger and the water comes up to your first joint — One ongkuli.
Stolephorus indicus. Indian Anchovy, also called pla sai dtan ปลาไส้ตัน. Used to make nam pla.
|khai||ไข||Animal Fat or Lard|
|nang||หนัง||Animal hide, skin, flesh|
|nam aep ben||น้ำแอปเปิ้ล||Apple juice|
Literally, "apple" from the English word.
|pla krating||ปลากระทิง||Armed Spiny Eel|
Mastacembelus armatus, a fresh-water eel in Thailand.
The long line of the back.
|bekon saenwit||เบค่อนแซนวิช||Bacon Sandwich|
|man farang ob||มันฝรั่งอบ||Baked potato|
|no mai||หน่อไม้||Bamboo Shoots|
|kluai (gluay, kluay)||กล้วย||Banana|
|bai kluai (bai gluay)||ใบกล้วย||Banana Leaves|
|pla muek kluai||ปลาหมึกกล้วย||Banana Squid|
Loligo formosana, also called Splendid Squid - A species of squid found in Southeast Asia.
|bai tong||ใบตอง||Banana leaf wrappers|
|bai krawan (bai grawan)||ใบกระวาน||Bay Leaf|
|tua ngok (tua-nork)||ถั่วงอก||Bean Sprouts|
|khao soi nuea||ข้าวซอยเนื้อ||Beef with Noodles in Curry Soup|
|nuea (nua-wua)||เนื้อ||Beef, or the meat of any animal|
If not specified, hope it is cow meat!
|phak khom gaeo bai yai||ผักโขมแก้วใบใหญ||Big Leaf Spinach|
|tao si||เตาซี่||Black Bean Sauce|
|ngah dam||งาดำ||Black Sesame Seeds|
|khao niao dam (kao niow dom)||ข้าวเหนียวดำ||Black Sticy Rice|
Pronounced "cow-knee-owh dumb". Black sticky rice is nutty and flavorful like wild rice. Soak and steam or boil to cook. Serve savory, combined with cooked white sticky rice, for a nutitious rice dish. Or sweeten with palm sugar and serve with coconut milk for a delicious Thai dessert (kanom).
|phrik thai||พริกไทย||Black pepper|
|luak||ลวก||Blanch (vegetables), soft-boil (an egg)|
|kaeng chuet (kaeng juet)||แกงจืด||Bland Soup, usually Chinese-style|
|chuet (juet, jued)||จืด||Bland, tasteless.|
In Thailand, Chinese-style soups are called "bland" soups, like kaeng chuet wunsen (noodle soup) แกงจืดวุ้นเส้น or nam kaeng chuet (beef stock) น้ำแกงจืด.
Don't you wonder why blood appears in a food glossary? I once had lap pat (ground duck salad) with the fresh duck blood poured over it.
|pu ma||ปูม้า||Blue Crab|
Portunus Pelagicus. Also called Blue Swimming Crab, Flower Crab or Sand Crab. These crabs are greenish grey marked with white blotches and have bluish claws. They are indigenous troughout the Indic and West Pacific Oceans — From Japan, and Philippines troughout Southeast and East Asia, to Indonesia, the East of Australia, and Fidji Islands, and westward to the Red Sea and East Africa. I have seen blue crabs identified as ปูม้าเป็น, bu maa pen (live blue crabs - เป็น means "alive"), in Thailand
The beginning word for many Thai dishes, usually in the form of a clear soup including Tom Yam ต้มยำ, Tom Som ต้มส้ม, Tom Ka ต้มข่า, and Tom Klong ต้มโคล้ง.
As in, gradook moo กระดูกหมู, which is "pork bone" or spareribs.
|phak nam dao||ผักน้ำเด้า||Bottle Gourd|
A more formal word, bi noht baat บิณฑบาตร, specifically means a "food bowl" or "alms dish". The act of putting food into a monk's bowl is called sai baat, ใส่บาตร.
Literally means "expensive cake".
|khao chao (kao chao)||ข้าวเช้า||Breakfast|
Literally, "morning rice". A more formal way of refering to breakfast is "a-han kao chao", อาหารข้าวเช้า, which just means "food morning rice".
อกไก่ (ok kai) is chicken breast.
|nam khem||น้ำเค็ม||Brine, Salt Water|
|phak klai kalam dok||ผักคล้ายกะหล่ำดอก||Broccoli|
Literally, "vegetable resembling cauliflower flower". Also spelled phonetically like the English word, "brawk-koh-lee", บรอกโคลี.
|hua||หัว||Bulb, tuber, rhizome or rootstock|
Cabbage is commonly eaten with laab, som tum, and yam, or used in salads or clear soups. For Chinese Cabbage, see phak kat chin, ผักกาดจีน.
|khanom||ขนม||Candy, sweets, cake|
Pronounced "ka-nome", it is a generic term for sweet dainties, candied foods, puddings, and pastries.
|pla krapong||ปลากระป๋อง||Canned Fish|
|khrueang krapong||เครื่องกระป๋อง||Canned Food|
|phak guang tung||ผักกวางตุ้ง||Cantonese Vegetable|
Literally, "Guangdong vegetable", Guangdong is located in Canton, Chinese. Also know as yao choy, yu choi, edible rape, green choy sum or sarsun (in India). It has long stalks, skinny leaves, and yellow flowers. It is a little more bitter than bok choy.
|ma fueang||มะเฟีอง||Carambola Fruit|
Amomum krevanh, appear like minature unhusked coconuts. The off-white bulb-shaped capsules reach about 1 cm in length and slightly more than this in diameter. Inside is a densely-packed cluster of angular, dark brown seeds, which are aromatic and have a slightly hot taste.
Amomum xanthoides Grown in South Eastern Thailand,Cardamon has been used since ancient times. These aromatic pods can be either green, white or black, and are used in a variety of sweet and savoury Thai dishes, especially in curries.
|hua phak kat daeng||หัวผักกาดแดง||Carrot|
Also, kee rot แครอท
|ma muang himaphan||มะม่วงหิมพานต์||Cashew Nut|
mamuang means "mango", but in the full formal Thai language mamuang himaphan is a cashew nut; the logic is as follows: himaphan refers to the Brahministic equivalent of the Garden of Eden, and the bean in which the cashew nut grows is similar to a small mango, hence the cashew is the "mango of paradise".
|op choei (awb cheeuy)||อบเสย||Cassia|
Cinnamonum cassia, Cassia is often mistaken as true cinnamon, Cinnamonum zeylanicum, but true cinnamon is almost never used in Thai cuisine. True cinnamon is the dried bark of a tree native to Sri Lanka that is tightly rolled into thin pale reddish-brown sticks. It has a delicate fragrance and sweet flavor. Cassia is indeginous to China and it is dark brown, thicker, with a strong flavor than true cinnamon.
Also spelled phonetically like the english word, เซเลอรี, sa-lo-re.
|bia chang||เบียร์ช้าง||Chang Beer|
Chang beer is a 6.4% ABV pale lager created in 1994 in a joint-venture with Carlsberg beer. It is now owned by ThaiBev, and has managed to win a considerable size of the market.
It literally means "to burn, to heat, to set fire to".
|chit saenwit||ชีสแซนวิช||Cheese Sandwich|
|ma khuea sida||มะเขือสีดา||Cherry tomato|
|nam sup (nam soop)||น้ำซุป||Chicken Stock|
|nuea kai||เนื้อไก่||Chicken meat|
|khao soi kai||ข้าวซอยไก่||Chicken with Noodles in Curry Soup|
|phrik chi fa||พริกชี้ฟ้า||Chile Spur Pepper|
Capsicum annuum acuminatum.
|phrik pon||พริกป่น||Chile powder, ground chile. View Additional Information|
|nam phrik siracha||น้ำพริกศรีราชา||Chili Garlic Sauce. View Additional Information.|
|nam pla phrik ma nao||น้ำปล่าพริกมะนาว||Chili fish sauce|
This sauce is made by mixing 2 tablespoonfuls of fish sauce, 2 teaspoonsful of lime juice, and I teaspoonsful of chiles. It is used as a sauce to accompany fried foods or as a condiment with rice.
Allium tuberosum, also known as garlic chives, the flavor is more like garlic than chives, though much milder. Both leaves and the stalks of the flowers are used as a flavoring similarly to chives, green onions or garlic and are used as a stir fry ingredient. In China, they are often used to make dumplings with a combination of egg, shrimp and pork. The flowers may also be used as a spice.
|pha lo||ผะโล่||Chinese Five Spice Blend|
Pong pae-lo, ผงผะโล้, is Chinese Five Spice Powder. It is made from cinnamon, coriander seed, bay leaves, anise and allspice.
|phak kat khiao pli||ผักกาดเขียวปลี||Chinese Mustard Green|
Brassica juncea. Also called Leaf Mustard or Mustard Green
|phak khom||ผักโขม||Chinese Spinach|
Amaranthus lividus, Amaranthus blitum, Amaranthus oleraceus, also known as Green Amaranth. It is similar to spinach, only it's prettier, tastier, and more nutritious.
|phak kat chin||ผักกาดจีน||Chinese White Cabbage|
Brassica pekinensis also called ผักกาดขาว, pak gaat kao. The leaves of Chinese cabage are light green and crinkly. Chinese cabbage is commonly used for soups, fried, or eaten as a raw vegetable with laab or nam prik.
|phak khana||ผักคะน้า||Chinese broccoli, Chinese Kale|
Brassica alboglabra, also known as as gai lohn, kai lan, and Chinese kale. The plant resembles regular broccoli, although the leaves appear to be a bit broader and the stems somewhat longer than broccoli. The flowers form first into diminutive heads and then elongate rapidly into flower stalks bearing yellow flowers.
|khuen chai||ขึ้นฉ่าย||Chinese celery|
Apium graveolens, Chinese celery has thin, hollow stalks and a much stronger flavor than common celery found in Western markets. It is commonly used in salads and stir-fry.
Allium schoenoprasum, spelled phonetically like the English word, but the final "v" sound is not pronounced.
|bai chi (bai chee)||ใบชี||Cilantro Leaves|
Coriandrum sativum, is of the parsley family. The leaves and stems are eaten fresh and used frequently as a garnish. The root and the seeds are ingredients in many dishes.
|apchoei (awp-cheeuy, ohp-cheeuy)||อบเชย||Cinnamon|
|hoi kap||หอยกาบ||Clam, Cockle|
Paphia undulata, Undulated Surf Clam.
Clean, wash or rinse, as in ล้างไก่ (clean chicken).
|het hu nu||เห็ดหูหนู||Cloud Ear Mushroom|
Auricularia sp. Also known as wood ear or tree ear, these mushrooms are commonly used in Chinese cuisine.
The very fragrant flower buds of the tree Caryophyllus aromaticus, thought to be native to insular Southeast Asia.
|kan plu (kan plou)||กานพลู||Cloves|
Engenia caryophyllata Cloves are the dried flower buds of a member of the myrtle family and can be used whole or in powder form. In Thai cuisine. They are added to curries but they also mix well with tomatoes and salty vegetables.
A typical usage is kratiam sap yap, กระเทียมสับหยาบ or coarsely chopped garlic.
|pla chon thale||ปลาช่อนทะเล||Cobia|
Anadara granosa and Anadara nodifera. Also known as arc shell and blood cockle.
|kati (gati, gkati)||กะทิ||Coconut Milk/Cream|
|nam ma prao||น้ำมะพร้าว||Coconut juice, coconut milk|
|nam kati||น้ำกะทิ||Coconut milk|
|nam tan ma prao||น้ำตาลมะพร้าว||Coconut palm sugar|
|tuai kafae||ถ้วยกาแฟ||Coffee cup|
Spelled phonetically from the French word, café. Printed on the coffee creamer package in the picture, it is spelled phonetically like the English word, กอฟฟี่ (khawf-fee).
|nam yen||น้ำเย็น||Cold Water|
Also means early evening between 4:00pm and 6:00pm, as in "kao yen" for evening rice or "dinner".
A Chinese rice porridge, like Hong Kong Congee, chok hong kong, โจ๊กฮ่องกง. Congee may be served plain, or with additions including chicken, pork, "pork liver innards", shrimp, fish, and with salted or fresh egg.
|suk suk dip dip||สุกๆดิบๆ||Cooked medium, when refering to meat|
|suk suk||สุกๆ||Cooked well done, when refering to meat|
An earthen pot or kettle.
|tao||เตา||Cooking stove, oven|
|paeng khao pot||แป้งข้าวโพด||Corn flour|
Usually baby corn (ข้าวโพดอ่อน, literally young corn) is used in Thai cuisine
|kan chiang pu||กรรเชียงปู||Crab Sculls|
The hind-most pair of legs on a crab. They are flattened blades with which the crabs row through the water.
|pu (bu, boo, poo)||ปู||Crab|
Pronounced "boooo", with a very long "oo" sound.
|chiao (jiao, jiaw, jeow)||เจียว||Crisp fry, to fry in oil|
[is] crushed, [is] broken into pieces.
|taeng gwa (taeng kwah, thangkwa)||แตงกวา||Cucumber|
|phong kare||ผงกะหรี่||Curry Powder|
|kare (garee, karee)||กะหรี่||Curry|
From the English word "curry". Used only when refering to Indian curry.
|chon som||ช้อนส้อม||Cutlery, silverware|
Literally a spoon and a fork.
|pla muek kradong||ปลาหมึกกระดอง||Cuttlefish|
Sepia pharonis - A commercially important cuttlefish from the Indo-West Pacific area.
|hua phak kat khao||หัวผักกาดขาว||Daikon|
Raphanus sativus, Chinese radish, white radish or oriental radish.
|si io dam||ซีอิดำ||Dark Soy Sauce|
A viscous and sweet mixture of soy sauce and molasses
|phak chi lao||ผักชีลาว||Dill|
Literally "Laotian Cilantro". Commonly seen with street food vendors to add a taste to soups.
|khao yen||ข้าวเย็น||Dinner, supper|
Literally, "evening rice". "yen" is the early evening hours between 4:00pm and 6:00pm.
|chim||จิ้ม||Dip in, to try, to have a taste|
Dip food into sauce, as in the many nam chim น้ำจิ้น recipes.
|tun||ตุ๋น||Double steam, [Chinese cooking] to cook by steaming, to steam|
|kung haeng (goong haeng, gung haeng)||กุ้งแห้ง||Dried Shrimp|
Shelled, salted, and sundried shrimps. Add to Pad Thai noodles for an authentic Thai taste. Mildly salty, with a fragrant aroma, pre-soak in warm water before adding to salads or grind or chop and add to chile pastes, soups, stir fries, sauces, or as a topping.
|phrik haeng||พริกแห้ง||Dried red chiles|
|nam duem||น้ำดื่ม||Drinking Water|
Sometimes, you might hear nam gin, น้ำกิน.
|tuai gaeo||ถ้วยแก้ว||Drinking glass|
|nam gin||น้ำกิน||Drinking water|
|panaeng||พะแนง, แพนง||Dry Curry|
A dry curry cooked in a pan rather than a pot, like Panaeng Nuea (Stir-Fried Beef Curry) พะแนงเนื้อ or Panaeng Kai (Penang Curry with Chicken) แพนงไก่.
Pronounced "haang" with a very long "a".
|nuea pat||เนื้อเป๊ด||Duck meat|
|ba mi (ba me)||บะหมี่||Egg Noodle|
Similar to spaghetti noodles (pronounced "bum-mee")
|salat khai saenwit||สลัดไข่แซนวิช||Egg Salad Sandwich|
Solanum spp., are eaten with nam prik.
|ma khuea yao||มะเขือยาว||Eggplant|
A long, thin, green eggplant.
|pla kapong daeng na tang||ปลากะพงแดงหน้าตั้ง||Emperor Red Snapper|
|tao hu yi||เต้าหู้ยี้||Fermented Bean Curd|
Small cakes of the solid curd put up in a red pickling solution. It is sold in the market by the cake and by the jar.
|pla ra||ปลาร้า||Fermented Fish Paste|
Also known as pickled mud fish or pickled gouramy fish. To make pla ra, the fish is cleaned and cut into pieces. Then it is mixed with salt and rice bran. The mixture is then stuffed into a big water jar, topped with a piece of wood to prevent the fish from becoming bloated, and left for 2 to 3 years before being eaten. It is often added to som tum and can be heated with chiles and other spices before serving with rice, fresh or steamed vegetables, or with curry. Heat on stove and mix with chile and other spices before serving.
|nam maw||Fermented Sausage|
|tao chiao||เต้าเจี้ยว||Fermented Soybeans|
A brew of soybeans and salt.
|pu na||ปูนา||Field Crab|
Small freshwater crabs sometimes added to som tum (Green Papaya Salad).
|la iat||ละเอียด||Fine, powdered|
A usage of the word is sap la iat, สับละเอียด (finely chopped).
|mo fai||หม้อไฟ||Fire pot|
A hot pot, usually has a fire beneath to serve steamed fish and squid dishes with lime.
|krapao pla||กระเพาะปลา||Fish Maw|
Krapao pla is the air bladder of a fish. It is fried to preserve it, and it is soaked in water to reconstitute it.
|nuea pla||เนื้อปลา||Fish meat|
|pla kapong||ปลากะพง||Fish of the bass and perch family|
|churot||ฉูรส||Flavoring, seasoning, spice|
A generic term for flour, powder, meal or starch
|tua khaek||ถั่วแขก||French Bean|
|sot||สด||Fresh, green; not spoiled; new; newly produced or minted; raw|
|phat si io||ผัดซีอิ๊ว||Fried Noodles with Soy Sauce|
|hom daeng chiao, hawm daeng jeow, hom daeng jiaw||หอมแดงเจียว||Fried Red Shallot|
A delicious topper for rice and noodles and other Thai dishes.
|khao phat (kao pad)||ข้าวผัด||Fried Rice|
|phat phak||ผัดผัก||Fried Vegetables|
|phat mama||Fried Yellow Instant Noodles|
|kai thot (gai tawd, gai tot)||ไก่ทอด||Fried chicken|
|khai khao||ไข่คาว||Fried eggs|
|pla thot||ปลาทอด||Fried fish|
|kaep mu||แคบหมู||Fried pork skin, pork cracklings|
|pla o khao||ปลาโอขาว||Frigate Mackeral|
|nam pon la mai||น้ำผลไม้||Fruit Juice|
|kan kae salak polamai||การแกะสลักผลไม้||Fruit carving|
|phon la mai||ผลไม้||Fruit|
|phat (pad, pat)||ผัด||Fry, fried, usually stir-fried|
To cook (a mixture of meat and vegetables) in a pan with a little oil.
A Thai frying pan is made of cast iron and has a round bottom.
|im||อิ่ม||Full (of food), had enough to eat|
Alphinia galangal, is a larger and lighter-colored relative of ginger and has its own distinctive taste.
|taeng||แต่ง||Garnish, adorn, decorate|
|phak bung||ผักบุ้ง||Generic term for Swamp Cabbage, Water Spinach, Water Morning Glory, Water Convolvulus|
|kung (goong, gung)||กุ้ง||Generic term for shrimp or prawn|
In the USA, people commonly call large shrimp "prawns", but that's not correct because some prawns can be smaller than shrimp. Some people think shrimp are saltwater and prawns are freshwater. That's not correct either. This is the difference:
|pla muek (pla muk, plamuek)||ปลาหมึก||Generic term for squid and cuttlefish|
|pla o||ปลาโอ||Generic term for tuna or tunny|
|pla rat||ปลาแรด||Giant Gourami|
|pla buek||ปลาบึก||Giant Mekong Catfish|
|nam khing||น้ำขิง||Ginger Ale|
Zingiber officinale, grows from underground stems, or rhisome. Mature ginger stems are buff-colored; young or fresh ginger, king awn ขิงอ่อน, is white and is eaten fresh and pickled, as well as cooked.
|nam tan sai daeng||น้ำตาลทรายแดง||Granulated Brown Sugar|
Less refined than nam tan sai.
|nam tan sai||น้ำตาลทราย||Granulated Cane Sugar|
Colors range from white to reddish and textures from fine to coarse. Some people find the reddish sugar tastier than the more refined white.
|phong kluea||ผงเกลือ||Granulated salt.|
|kaeng khiao wan (gaeng kiew wahn)||แกงเขียวหวาน||Green Curry Paste|
|ton hom||ต้นหอห||Green Onions, Spring Onions|
|phrik thai on||พริกไทยอ่อน||Green Peppercorns|
Literally, "young prik thai".
|phrik yuat (prik yuet)||พริกหยวก||Green bell pepper, sweet pepper|
|taeng mo khiao||แตงโมเขียว||Green melon|
Cucumis melo, also know as Japanese melon, muskmelon, cantaloupe, honeydew or sugar melon.
|phrik khiao||พริกเขียว||Green pepper|
|khiao (keow, khiew, kiao, kiew)||เขียว||Green|
As in kai Phat Khiao Wan (Chicken Stir-Fried with Green Curry Paste) ไก่ผัดเขียวหวาน or Nam Phrik Kaeng Khiao Wan (Green Curry Paste) น้ำพริกแกงเขียวหวาน.
|ping (bing)||ปิ้ง||Grill, Toast|
|krin chit saenwit||กริลชีสแซนวิช||Grilled Cheese Sandwich|
|kai yang||ไก่ย่าง||Grilled Chicken|
|yang||ย่าง||Grilled, roasted, baked, barbequed|
As in kai Yang Isan (Barbequed Chicken) ไก่ย่างอีสาน or Pla Muek Yang (Barbequed Squid) ปลาหมึกย่าง.
|nuea bot||เนื้อบด||Ground meat|
|pla kao (pla gaw, pla gao)||ปลาเก๋า||Grouper|
Literally "stuff inside" meaning innards, giblets, guts, internal organs, or offal
|phrik ha-ne-na-roh||พริกฮาเนนาโร||Habanero Chile|
|khi mao||ขี้เมา||Habitually drunk, a drunkard, very drunk.|
|pla ta diao||ปลาตาเดียว||Halibut|
|haem saenwit||แฮมแซนวิช||Ham Sandwich|
|het mun||เห็ดมูล||Hed Mun|
Termitomyces sp., a variety of edible mushrooms.
|het lom||เห็ดลม||Het Lom|
Het Lom is one of the most widely cultivated edible mushrooms in northern and northeast of Thailand.
|ma kok||มะกอก||Hog Plum|
Spondias pinnata, also known as Thai olives, ambra in Laos, and buah amara in Malaya. Thai olives are similar in size and shape to the green olives most people know. The astringent and tart tropical green olive is most frequently pickled, to be nibbled on any time of day dipped in or sprinkled with a mixture of crushed chiles, salt and sugar. It is also frequently sliced up and pounded into a spicy green papaya salad.
"pueng" means "bee", so nam pueng is liquid from a bee.
|nam phrik||น้ำพริก||Hot Chili Paste Sauce|
A watery sauce of shrimp paste and chili used as a condiment
|hot dok||ฮอทดอก||Hot Dog|
Spelled phonetically like the English words
|chap chai||จับฉ่าย||Hotchpot, medley, mélange, as in Tom Chap Chai (Vegetable Stew) ต้มจับฉ่าย.|
In Thailand, it is often pronounced as "lawn".
|phak kat kaeo||ผักกาดแก้ว||Iceberg Lettuce|
Pronounced "nam kang".
|khrueang||เครื่อง||Ingredients, food, ware, utensil|
Don't let that necessarily scare you! It also could mean "stuffing" or "filling" (food packed inside other food). Lum sai lek (ลีไส้ล็ก) is a small intestine. Lum sai yai (ลีไส้ใหญ่) is a large intestine or colon.
|phak tam lueng||ผักตำลึง||Ivy Gourd|
The young, unripe fruit of the ivy gourd, luk tam lueng, ตำลึงลูก, is usually eaten pickled, with nam prik, or used in sour spicy soups. The leaves and young shoots are used in soups, kaeng liang, noodles, or fried.
|khanun (kha nuu)||ขนุน||Jack Fruit|
The jackfruit is the shape of a large melon. The fruit has a green-greyish skin, and contains a great number of pips or kernels which are about the size of a pigeon's egg. These, when roasted, taste like chestnuts. The fruit is yellow and succulent, of a sweet taste and powerful smell. Thais eat the yellow flesh alone, with ice cream or mixed with other fruits and coconut milk in a compote. The cooked seeds find their way into many dishes.
|phrik cha-la-be-no||พริกจาลาเปโน||Jalapeno Chile|
|taeng gwa yi-pun||แตงกวาญี่ปุ่น||Japanese cucumber|
|khao hom mali (kao hom mali)||ข้าวหอมมะลิ||Jasmine Rice|
Pronounced "cow homme-mah-lee".
|maeng kaphrun (maeng gaproon)||แมงกะพรุน||Jellyfish|
Dried jellyfish has little taste but is valued for its crunchy texture. It is the salted and sundried skin of the mantle of the jellyfish
|het hu nu si nam tam||เห็ดหูหนูสีนำ้ตาล||Jew's Ear Mushroom|
Auricularia auricula. They are usually purchased in dry form and a reconstituted with water prior to use. They swell to triple the dried size and have a cartilage-like texture. These mushrooms are supposed to be good for clean lungs.
|pla kapong daeng gled haang||ปลากะพงแดงเกล็ดห่าง||John's Snapper|
|pla yi sok||ปลายี่สก||Jullien's golden carp|
Probarbus jullieni, a river fish found in Thailand, Cambodia and Malaysia. It can grow to 5 feet long and weigh as much as 150 pounds. It prefers deep, clear water with sand or gravel substrate and abundant mollusc populations. It feeds at night on aquatic weeds, small molluscs and crabs.
|kaeng pa (gaeng pah)||แกงป่า||Jungle Curry|
|phew ma khrut||Kaffir Lime Leaf, Dried|
|bai makrut (bai magroot)||ใบมะกรูด||Kaffir Lime Leaf|
See pew magroot
|ma krut||มะกรูด||Kaffir Lime|
|sot ma khuea thet||ซอสมะเขือเทศ||Ketchup|
Literally, tomato sauce.
|pla insi chud||ปลาอินทรีจุด||King Mackeral|
Scomberomorus guttatus Indo-Pacific king mackeral popularly (spotted) seer fish
Boesenbergia pandurata, sometimes classified as Kaempferia pandurata or Kaempferia panduratum, Fingerroot or Chinese Keys is a rhizome that grows bunches of slender and short yellow-brown tuberous roots and is used in fish dishes. Sometimes mistakenly called "lesser galangal". In Thai cuisine, it is eaten raw in salads, added to mixed vegetable soups and curries, especially those made of fish. It is also pickled.
|chin nuea gae||ชิ้นเนื้อหแกะ||Lamb chops|
|nuea gae||เนื้อแกะ||Lamb meat|
Leucaena leucocephala, also known as Horse Tamarind, Jumbie Bean, Leucaena, Wild Mimosa, Wild Tamarind, and White Popinac. Lead Tree is a type of mimosa tree. In Thailand, the young shoots found on the top of the tree are eaten. Young pods are also cooked and eaten as vegetables. Seeds can be used as a substitute for coffee, and when cooked can be eaten like popcorn.
|bai maeng lak||ใบแมงลัก||Lemon Basil or Hairy Basil Leaf|
Lemon basil leaves have a sweet fragrance, and they are used for adding a fragrance to foods including Gaeng Liang, แกงเลียง, and kanom chin (curried Chinese noodles). The seeds are eaten as a sweet with syrup and crushed ice.
Literally "lime juice".
|ta khrai (takrai)||ตะไคร้||Lemongrass|
Cymbopgon citratus, is an aromatic grey-green grass.
|bia leo||เบียร์ลีโอ||Leo Beer|
A 6% ABV lager brewed by Boon Rawd Brewery.
|phak kat (phak kard)||ผักกาด||Lettuce|
I've also seen lettuce referred to as สลัด, "Salad".
|si io khao||ซีอิขาว||Light Soy Sauce|
Also used for lemon which is not commonly available in Thailand.
|thit chu||ทิชชู่||Literally translated "tissue", toilet paper|
|kung mang kan||กุ้งมังกร||Lobster|
|tua phak yao||ถั่วฝักยาว||Long Beans, Yard Long Beans|
Piper longum, sometimes called Javanese, Indian or Indonesian long pepper, is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. Long pepper has a similar, but hotter, taste to its close relative Piper nigrum - from which black, green and white pepper are obtained. The word pepper itself is derived from the Sanskrit word for long pepper, pippali.
|taeng ran||แตงร้าน||Long cucumber|
Euphoria longana is a small, round, undistinguished-looking fruit. The brittle light brown skin encloses delicious translucent, juicy soft flesh around a single large, black inedible pit. The Chinese name for this fruit is long yan rou, which literally means "dragon eye flesh". In the grocery markets, Euphoria fruits are simply known as longans.
Literally, "noon rice"
|phong chu rot||ผงชูรส||MSG - Monosodium Glutamate|
No MSG please: Mai sai pong choo rot na krap/ka, ไม่ใส่ผงชูรสนะครับ/คะ (Remember, krab ครับ, for a man, and ka คะ for a woman.
|dawk chan (dok jan)||Mace|
Rastrelliger brachysomus. Also called Short-Bodied Mackeral. They are about 5 to 7 inches long and have a flat body. The back is bluish silver with silver belly.
Southern Thailand is the home of the mangosteen, which appears on markets in May and continues through most of the rainy season. This delicious fruit has a thick, dark-red skin, inside which are creamy white segments with a sweet, slightly tart flavor; as a general rule, the more segments a mangosteen has, the fewer seeds one will find. A knife is used to slit the skin around the middle, after which it opens easily and the flesh can be eaten with a fork as a memorable after-meal treat.
Pronounced "ma-moo-ung". There are several varieties of mango in Thailand including Kiao Sawoei, Nam Dorkmai, Choke-Anan, Ok-Rong, and Apple Mango. The mango in the picture to the right appear to be Nam Dorkmai mangos. The ripe fruit is often eaten with sticky rice.
|ma prang||มะปราง||Marian Plums|
Bouea burmanica, Bouea macrophylla. Small tree with edible orange fruit that looks like a small mango or apricot. Also called ma yong, มะยง. Maprang fruits, especially the sweet varieties, are consumed fresh or eaten cooked in syrup. Entire immature fruits are chopped and used as an ingredient in the spicy condiment sambal, and are pickled to prepare asinan. Young leaves are also consumed in salads and eaten with sambal.
|kaeng masaman (gaeng masamun)||แกงมัสมั่น||Masamun Curry Paste|
|tuai tuang||ถ้วยตวง||Measuring cup|
|luk chin (look chin)||ลูกชิ้น||Meatballs|
|nuea sap||เนื้อสับ||Minced meat|
|lap||ลาบ||Minced meat salad, ground meat, chopped meat, minced meat|
Mentha arvensis, Thai mint leaves are round, not thick, hairless, and slightly wavy. The stem tends to be dark red. It is easy to grow, and Thais commonly plant it in pots kept near the kitchen, where it can always be easily gathered.
|phrik kap kluea, prik gap gluea||พริกกับเกลือ||Mixture of Sugar, Salt and Crushed Chile|
Very common to see the street vendors sell it with fresh fruit
Members of the family Mugilidae.
|wunsen||วุ้นเส้น||Mung Bean Noodles|
These noodles are made from the startch of mung beans, the beans commonly used for bean sprouts. In Thai language, wun (วุ้น) refers to the properties of gelatin, jello or jelly-textured, and sen (เส้น) means noodle, or literally a filament or string. For example, pork skin simmered until tender is a type of "wun". Mung bean noodles are glass, cellophane, green bean thread, dried bean thread, or "fun-see" in Chinese. These noodles are sold dry, and stiff like nylon fishing line in texture. They are reconstituted when boiled, then used in soups, stir-fries or spring rolls. They are called "cellophane noodles" or "glass noodles" because of their appearance when dried, resembling cellophane, a clear material or a translucent light gray or brownish-gray color. Don't confuse them with rice vermicelli which are made from rice flour and are white rather than clear.
Pronounced "head" in a low tone, barely pronouncing the "d".
|hoi maelang phu||หอยแมลงภู่||Mussel|
Perna viridis, green mussel, also called hoi maeng phu หอยแมงภู่, in Thai.
Spelled phonetically like the English word. Also spelled, มัสตาด.
|tua||ถั่ว||Nut or Bean|
Sometimes a peanut is simply called "tua".
|luk chan (look jan)||ลูกจัน||Nutmeg|
|pla muek yak||ปลาหมึกยักษ||Octopus|
Literally, a gigantic monster squid.
|kra chiap keow||กระเจี๊ยบเขียว||Okra|
Abelmoschus esculentus, also known as Lady's Fingers, gombo, gumbo, quingombo, okro, ochro, bamia, bamie, quiabo. In Spanish okra is quibombo; the French word is gombo, bamia or bamya, in India it is bhindi, and in the eastern Mediterranean and Arab countries bamies.
|khai chiao (kai jeow, kai jee-o)||ไข่เจียว||Omelette|
|sup hua hom||ฃุบหัวหอม||Onion Soup|
Literally "big" shallot or onion.
|nam som||น้ำส้ม||Orange juice or any citrus juice|
Thai oranges are green with a slight amount of orange color. The juice is bright orange and tastes nothing like orange juice in the USA!
Origanum vulgare, spelled phonetically from the English word.
|het nang rom (het nang lom)||เห็ดนางรม||Oyster Mushroom|
A fan-shaped mushroom that is white, light gray, light gray with a bluish tinge, pale yellow or pinkish in color. It has a slight odor similar to anise or licorice and a tender texture with a mild oyster-like flavor.
|nam man hoi (nam muen hoi)||น้ำมันหอย||Oyster sauce|
Sweetened soy sauce with oyster extract added
|hoi nang rom||หอยนางรม||Pacific Oyster|
|nam tan sot||น้ำตาลสด||Palm Juice|
Coconut juice taken from a tender coconut when it was still green.
|kaeng panaeng (gaeng panaeng)||แกงแพนง, แกงพะแนง||Panang Curry Paste|
|bai toei (bai toey)||ใบเดย||Pandanus Leaf Essence|
Pandanus leaf essence, also called "toei hom", "bay toei" or screwpine leaf flavoring, is Thailand's equivalent to vanilla flavoring. It has an earthy fragrance and taste and is usually added to coconut milk based sweets. A common dish is Kai Ho Bai Toei (Chicken wrapped in Pandanus Leaf) ไก่ห่อใบเดย
|som tam (som tam malago)||ส้มตำ, ส้มตำมะละกอ||Papaya Salad|
Literally "sour and pound papaya"
Originally a native of Mexico, the papaya has been grown in Southeast Asia since the 16th century and the long yellow or orange fruit, rich in Vitamins A and C, is a well-established component of Thai cuisine. In perhaps its most popular use, green papayas are sliced into thin strips and ground together with dried shrimp, garlic, and hot chilies to produce a fiery salad called som tam.
|ma khuea fuang||มะเขือพวง||Pea Eggplant|
Solanum torvum, small pea-sized green eggplants with smooth skin. The young fruit is eaten as a fresh vegetable, put in nam prik, or used in curry, green curry, and kaeng kai.
|nam man tua||น้ำมันถั่ว||Peanut Oil|
|tua li song||ถั่วลิสง||Peanuts|
|dong||ดอง||Pickle, pickled, fermented|
|phak kat dong||ผักกาดดอง||Pickled Cabbage|
Chopped crunchy white cabbage is pickled in vinegar, salt and sugar for minimum of 3 days. It is served as a relish or added to dishes while cooking to give a salty, slightly sour flavor.
|pu khem||ปูเค็ม||Pickled Crabs|
Bu Kem are relished and find their way into a number of popular Thai dishes. Small crabs of various species are packed in salt and sold by the piece in the market.
|khing dong||ขิงดอง||Pickled Ginger|
|ma muang dong||มะม่วงดอง||Pickled Mango|
|hua chai po||หัวไช้โป||Pickled Radish|
Made from salted and pickled daikon-like turnips. It is both salty and sweet and makes a nice contrast fried with rice noodles. Rinse well before adding to Pad Thai.
|chin||ชิ้น||Piece of food|
Also a numeric classifier for food.
|nuea mu||เนื้อหมู||Pig meat (Pork meat)|
|mu han||หมูหัน||Pig suckling roasted over an open fire.|
|nam sapparot||น้ำสับปะรด||Pineapple juice|
The pineapple is native of Central America (Christopher Colombus discovered it along with the West Indies) and it has been grown in Thailand for several centuries, especially in the sandy soil along the sea coasts. Indeed, so widespread has cultivation been in recent years that today the kingdom ranks as the world's leading exporter of canned pineapple. Besides being eaten fresh or drunk as juice, the chopped fruit is often an ingredient of cooked dishes such as a spicy soup called kaeng khua sapparot and phat sapparot, which is fried pineapple with prawns, chiles, and onions. The main fruiting seasons for Thailand are April to June and December to January but some varieties are on the market year-round.
This is the Thai version of a grapefruit, but with a sweet rather than a sour taste and considerably larger. A number of varieties are grown, with succulent flesh that may be pale yellow, orange, or red, and since the unpeeled fruit can be kept for around a month it is a popular addition to Thai meals. The peak fruiting season is from August to November, but some pomelos are available throughout the year.
Also called butterfish, it is a prized marine food fish. There is the Silver Promfret (pla jalamet khao) ปลาจะละเม็ดขาว, and the Black Promfret (pla jalamet dam) ปลาจะละเม็ดดำ.
|kaeng som||แกงส้ม||Popular fish soup in Thailand, like Gaeng Som Pla (Sour Soup) แกงส้มปลา.|
|mu sam chan||หมูสามชั้น||Pork Belly|
Literally, three layer pork — This is the same cut of pork that is used for making bacon, with a layer of red meat, fat and skin. Pork belly is regarded as one of the tastiest cuts of the animal despite its fatty content and it is a particular favorite, whether fried until crisp or slowly cooked with five-spice powder. The long cooking method makes the pork particularly tender and also helps render much of its excess fat. Cooked this way, it is often served with plain boiled rice and vegetables. Pork belly is often used minced as a secret ingredient in other dishes to provide flavor and moistness. It is often combined with prawns (shrimp) in prawn cakes and also with beef to give certain lightness.
|kha mu||ขาหมู||Pork Hock|
Literally means "pig leg".
|nang mu||หนังหมู||Pork Skin|
Used as it is or deep-fried, pork skin is a Thai specialty. It is made by removing all the hair and fat from the skin, which is then scraped clean, boiled until tender, and then sliced. It can be found in the frozen food section of Asian stores. It can be used in soup or stir-fried with vegetables.
|chin nuea mu||ชิ้นเนื้อหมู||Pork chops|
|mo khao||หม้อข้าว||Pot for cooking rice|
|man farang||มันฝรั่ง||Potato, an Irish potato|
To crush or pulverize by using great force, as one would do with a motar and pestle. For example, rak phak chi khlok, รากผักชีโขลก, (cilantro root pounded with motar and pestle)
|khao kua (kao koor)||ข้าวคั่ว||Powdered Fried Rice|
|ton||ต้น||Prefix used for many plant names|
Garlic, for example, is "kratiam", กระเทียม and the garlic plant is "ton kratiam", ต้นกระเทียม.
|fak thong (pak thong, fuck thong)||ผักทอง||Pumpkin|
Cucurbita moschata, also known as Cushaw, Butternut Squash, or Winter Squash.
|ma khuea muang||มะเขือม่วง||Purple Eggplant|
|hua phak kat||หัวผักกาด||Radish|
Raphanus sativus, also rae-dit แรดิช.
The fruit is called luk ngaw ลูกเงาะ. Ruby red and covered with fine green-tipped hairs, the rambutan is one of the most attractive Thai fruits and also one of the most delicious when eaten at the peak of ripeness between May and September when it is most plentiful. Thai rambutans are noted for their sweetness and considerable quantities are exported both fresh and canned; the main growing areas are Chanthaburi and southern provinces such as Surat Thani.
|phla||พล่า||Raw meat salad|
A dish made of slices of prawn or rare meat, green vegetables and lime juice. Also, to slice meat or prawns for making the dish — Like a dish I saw called phla mu pa, พล่าหมูป่า, which was described to be spicy pork cooked with chile.
|dip||ดิบ||Raw, unripe, green, undercooked when refering to meat, rare, uncooked|
|phrik yuat daeng||พริกหยวกแดง||Red Bell Peppers|
|kaeng phet (gaeng ped)||แกงเผ๊ด||Red Curry Paste|
A thick spicy curry
|hom daeng||หอมแดง||Red Shallots|
|pla kapong daeng||ปลากะพงแดง||Red Snapper|
|phrik daeng||พริกแดง||Red pepper|
|si khrong||ซี่โครง||Ribs, rib of an animal, spare ribs|
|kuaitiao (guay dtiow)||ก๋วยเตี๋ยว||Rice Noodles, Rice Stick Noodles|
Kuaitiao, from a Chinese word, are opaque ribbon-like rice noodles. They are called "gway tee-ow" in Thai, "chow fun" in Chinese, or "ban pho" in Vietnamese. Pre-soak in warm water to soften, before frying or adding to soups. These noodles are used to make Pad Thai
|paeng khao chao||แป้งข้าวเจ้า||Rice flour|
|khao soi||ข้าวซอย||Rice noodles in soup, but today egg noodles are mainly used.|
|khao tom||ข้าวต้ม||Rice soup, rice gruel, congee, rice porridge|
|khrueang puang||เครื่องพวง||Ring of Spices|
Usually served with noodles, the spices are dried chile powder (Prik Pom), vinegar with chile slices (Prik Dong), fish sauce (Nam Pla), sugar. View Additional Information.
|suk||สุก||Ripe, mature, cooked, done, boiled|
|kung nae nam||กุ้งแน่น้ำ||River Prawns|
(see goong gaam graam กุ้งก้ามกราม).
|nuea yang||เนื้อย่าง||Roast Beef (or roast meat)|
|nam phrik pao (nam prik phao, nam prik pow)||น้ำพริกเผา||Roasted Chile Paste in Bean Oil|
An excellent accompaniment to steamed jasmine rice. Made primarily from roasted red chilis and ground dried shrimp, it has a wonderful mellow taste. It is often added to 'tom yum' soup.
|khao pon (kao pon, khua pon)||ข้าวป่น||Roasted Rice|
|tua li song khua||ถั่วลิสงคั่ว||Roasted peanuts|
A mantis shrimp of the genus Squilla, also called kung hin, กุ้งหิน
|kung hin||กุ้งหิน||Rock Lobster|
hin หิน, means "rock" in Thai. Also called gang, กั้ง.
|nam tan kruat||น้ำตวลกราด||Rock sugar|
|phak kat hom||ผักกาดหอม||Romaine Lettuce|
Lactuca sativa. Literally means "vegetable like cabbage pleasant-smelling".
|rak||ราก||Root of a plant|
The root of a plant, as in raak pak chee, รากผักชี, (cilantro root)
|chom pu||ชมพู่||Rose Apple|
Euginia jambos, also known as Pink Rose Apple or Malay Apple.
Rosmarinus officinalis, also known as nam daang jaak ta-lay นำ้ด้างจากทะเล, or dew of the sea.
|nam salat||น้ำสลัด||Salad dressing, mayonnaise.|
|pla saen mon||ปลาแซลมอน||Salmon|
Spelled phonetically from the English word.
|buai (bouy)||บ๊วย||Salted Plums|
These dried shriveled plums are about the same size as olives. They are grayish brown and covered in a fine layer of salt. They are sold in decorative clear plastic containers or wrapped in cellophane. Salted plums are used to flavor steamed fish or other Thai dishes. The plums and juice are used to make a sweet and sour dipping sauce.
|saenwit||แซนวิช||Sandwich (from the English word)|
|pla sadin, pla saa diin||ปลาชาร์ดึน||Sardine|
|nam chim||น้ำจิ้ม||Sauce, Dip|
Spelled phonetically from the English word, "sauce".
|sai krok (sai grook, sai ua)||ไส้กรอก||Sausage|
Pungently flavorful without sweetness.
|phak chi farang||ผักชีฝรั่ง||Sawtooth Coriander, Stink Weed, Long Leaf Cilantro|
Eryngium Foetidum. Sawtooth Coriander has been cultivated in Europe since the 17th century and is thought to be introduced to Southeast Asia by China. It is an annual plant with a short clumpy stem. The leaves are long-shaped, about 3 to 4 inches and 1/2 inch wide with dark green, with jagged edges. They are smooth and have a pleasant fragrance and a characteristic slightly sour taste with a hint of cilantro and mint. The leaves are eaten as a fresh vegetable and used to give fragrance to foods. They are often added to strong smelling dishes to mask unpleasant odors.
|khot klet pla||ขอดเก็ลดปลา||Scale fish|
To remove the scales from the fish.
A usage of the word would be khot klet pla, ขอดเกล็ดปลา (remove fish scales, or scale the fish).
to pick out; to scoop out; to gouge; to dig out; to take out; to spoon out. A usage of the word is khwak sai, ควักไส้ (scoop out intestines or guts — when you clean a fish)
|pu thale||ปูทะเล||Sea Crab|
Scylla Serrata. Also called Mud Crab, Black Crab or Mangrove Crab. These crabs have drak grey shells and reddish claws. They are indigenous throughout the estuaries and mangroves of Africa, Australia and Asia. They are among the tastiest crab species and have a huge demand in South Asian countries where they are often bought alive in the markets. In the northern states of Australia and especially Queensland, mud crabs are relatively common and generally prized above other seafood within the general public. I've also seen female mud crabs containing rich reddish eggs called ปูไข่, bu kai, or "crab eggs". Mud crabs can be quite large. I've eaten some with claws as big as my hand
|pling thale||ปลิงทะเล||Sea Cucumber|
Sea cucumber, also called a trepand, sea slug, or bêche-de-mer, is considered a delicacy in Far East countries such as Singapore, Malaysia, China, Japan, and Indonesia. It is also highly valued for its supposed medicinal properties. The flesh of the animal is "cleaned" in a process that takes several days. The food item is often purchased dried, and then rehydrated before use. The product is used in soups, stews and braised dishes due to its gelatinous texture.
|pla kapong khao||ปลากะพงขาว||Sea Perch, Giant Seaperch|
Lates calcarifer, as in Kapong Khao Priao Wan (Sweet and Sour Fish) กะพงขาวเปรี้ยวหวาน.
|kluea samut||เกลือสมุทร||Sea Salt|
|kluea thale (gluea talay)||เกลือทะเล||Sea Salt|
|thale (talay, ta lee, thelah)||ทะเล||Seafood|
|ahan thale (a haan ta lee, ahan taley, ahan thelah)||อาหารทะเล||Seafood|
Pronounced "ah-haan tah-lay".
|khana||คะน้า||See phak khana|
|chon glang||ช้อนกลาง||Serving Spoon|
|nam man ngah (nam muen ngah)||น้ำมันงา||Sesame Oil|
Sesamum indicum, has small oval seeds which are white and have dark hulls. They are usually sold hulled.
Green or Spring onions are "ton hom", ต้นหอห, literally "onion plant".
|hoi (hawy)||หอย||Shellfish, clam, oyster, snail, shell|
Pronounced with a rising tone.
|het hom (hed horm, hed hom)||เห็ดหอม||Shiitake Mushroom|
Lentinus edodes, also known as Chinese Mushrooms or Japanese Black Mushrooms. Shiitake mushrooms have a pale brown to dark reddish brown cap that is generally two to four inches wide. The young mushrooms have an edge rolled inward, which nearly flattens out with age. The stems are tough and fibrous and are generally detached and discarded. The cap has creamy white gills on its underside and its flesh is firm and white. The mushroom grows in clusters on hardwood, such as oak, chestnut and beech. The flesh is meaty textured with a rich, smoky flavor and goes well with all foods. These mushrooms are supposed to be good for baby's cartilage.
|mu yong||หมูหยอง||Shredded pork, dried and preserved.|
|kapi (gabi, gapee, gabpi, gkapki, ka-peei)||กะปิ||Shrimp paste|
Made from ground shrimp and rice. Kasma Loha-unchit has a very good article about kapi.
|bia sing||เบียร์สิงห์||Singha Beer|
Singha is 6% ABV pale lager brewed by Boon Rawd Brewery.
|nuea san nok||เนื้อสันนอก||Sirloin|
Literally meat outside backbone. The loin is located on both sides of the backbone starting at the shoulder and continuing back to the hind leg. The sirloin is the section of the loin closest to the rump.
A sizzling sound as in pla duk phat cha ปลาดุกผัดฉ่า.
|pha||ผ่า||Slit, cut open, cleave, split|
|hung (hoong)||หุง||Slow blanch, to boil or cook|
|kung foi (goong fawy)||กุ้งฝอย||Small Prawn|
Macrobrachium lampropus. Small prawns grown in still, fresh water.
|pu sammae||ปูแสม||Small Saltwater Crab|
I think these are the crabs used to make Pu Choop Paeng Thot (Crunchy Fried Crabs) ปูชุบปังทอด
Lutjanus waigiensis and L. fulvus, also called flame-colored snapper, blacktail snapper, and waigeu snapper.
|chae||แช่||Soak, steep, immerse|
As in "chae nam" แช่น้ำ - to "soak in water", or kung chae nam pla - shrimp "soaked in nam pla".
|nam wan||น้ำหวาน||Soft drink, flavored syrup|
|nam khuat||น้ำขาว||Soft drink|
Literally bottled water/liquid.
|tao hu khao chanit on||เต้าหู้ขาวชนิดอ่อน||Soft or Silken Tofu|
|pu nim||ปูนิ่ม||Soft-Shelled Crab|
|pla maa||ปลาม้า||Soldier Croaker|
|mo kaeng||หม้อแกง||Soup pot|
|nam kaeng (nam geeng, nam gaeng)||น้ำแกง||Soup, or the liquid part of curry|
From the English word, "soup".
|tua lueang||ถั่วเหลือง||Soy Bean|
|si io||ซีอิ๊ว||Soy Sauce|
Pronounced approximately "see yew" (also nam si iu)
|nam si io||น้ำซีอิ๊ว||Soy sauce|
|tao hu (tao huu, thao hoo, dao hoo)||เต้าหู้||Soybean Curd, Tofu|
Commonly called tofu, it is made salted and unsalted in solid or soft forms. The solid curd has a cheesy consistency and is sold in blocks about 4 inches square.
|tao chiao nam (dao jiow nam)||เต้าเจี้ยวน้ำ||Soybean Paste|
Preparation made with fermented soybeans and flour
From the Italian word.
|pla insi pang||ปลาอินทรีบั้ง||Spanish Mackeral|
|khrueang chu rot||เครื่องฉูรส||Spice|
|phat khi mao||ผัดขี้เมา||Spicy Fried Noodles|
|phet (pet)||เผ๊ด||Spicy, hot taste|
Spinacia oleracea, also called ผักปวยเล้ง, phak buai leng.
|phak puai lang||ผักปวยเล้ง||Spinach|
Spinacia oleracea, also just called ปวยเล้ง, puai lang.
|buap liam||บวบเหลี่ยม||Sponge gourd, angle gourd, angled luffa|
Also known as angle gourd, angled luffa, or Chinese okra. Fruits have raised ridges running from end to end, resembling okra. The ridged fruit is 1-2 ft. long and 2 inches across and is lighter than the Smooth Skin Luffa. This variety is very popular for cooking use in China and Vietnam. Flesh is very tender and delicious.
|chon (chawn, chorn)||ช้อน||Spoon|
|paeng ho||แป้งห่อ||Spring Roll Wrappers|
Literally, "flour wrapping", also called rice paper. Made from a mixture of rice flour, water, and salt these are rolled out by machine to paper thinness and then dried in the sun. They are used extensively for wrapping Thai fresh spring rolls and deep fried spring rolls. Deep fried spring rolls are wrapped with crispy fresh lettuce and herbs and finally dipped in a sweet, sour hot sauce.
|po pia thot||ปอเปี๊ยะทอด||Spring Rolls|
|khan||คั้น||Squeeze, squash, crush|
nam som khan, น้ำสัมคั้น, is fresh-squeezed orange juice.
|poi kak||โป๊ยกั๊ก||Star Anise|
|khao plao (kao plao)||ข้าวเปล่า||Steamed Rice, Plain Rice|
|nuea tun||เนื้อตุ๋น||Steamed beef|
|mo tun||หม้อตุ๋น||Steaming pot|
|lon (lohn)||หลน||Stew or simmer|
Stew or simmer, as in Pu Lon (Crab Dip) ปูหลน.
|khao niao (kao niow)||ข้าวเหนียว||Sticky Rice|
|pla phat||ปลาผัด||Stir-Fried Fish|
|kaprao (gapraw)||กะเพรา||Stir-fried dish with holy basil (bai grapaw) and chile (prik kee noo)|
|het fang||เห็ดฟาง||Straw Mushroom|
|pla duk thale||ปลาดุกทะเล||Striped Sea Catfish|
|pla chon||ปลาช่อน||Striped Snakehead, Mudfish|
Snakehead is a very popular food fish in Thailand. It has a tasty, almost boneless meat. It grows to more than 3 feet in length and can weight more than 15 pounds. Snakeheads have large heads with sharp teeth for eating just about anything. It will feed on other fish, frogs and even birds or rats!
|tua lin tao||ถั่วลันเตว||Sugar Pea|
|oi (awy, eoy)||อ้อย||Sugarcane|
|nam oi||น้ำอ้อย||Sugarcane juice|
|wan (waan, wahn)||หวาน||Sugary, Sweet Taste|
The sugar palm tree is call dton dtan, ต้นตาล, "nam dtan" is the liquid from the palm tree.
|yot||ยอด||Superb, excellent, best, supreme|
As in Kai Phat Yod Khao Pod (Chicken with Baby Corn) ไก่ผัดยอดข้าวโพด
|pla dip||ปลาดิบ||Sushi, raw fish
||si io wan||ซีอิ๊วหวาน||Sweet Dark Soy Sauce
||bai horapa||ใบโหระพา||Sweet Thai Basil|
Tastes rather like anise, looks like European sweet basil. It is often eaten raw, served on a plated of herbs to accompany a meal. They are served with lab or used in spring roll wraps. They are also used in stir-fried chicken or beef and in red and green curries.
|phak wan||ผักหวาน||Sweet Vegetable|
Forest tree, or Melientha suavis Pierre - the leaves and flowers are used, and are slightly sweet. It is usually eaten in soups.
|priao wan (priaw wan, briaw wan)||เปรี้ยวหวาน||Sweet and sour taste
|nam ma kham piak||น้ำมะขามปียก||Tamarind Juice
||ma kham piak||มะขามเปียก||Tamarind Paste|
Literally, wet/moist tamarind
|nam som ma kham||น้ำส้มมะขาม||Tamarind juice|
Made by mixing some of the fruit with water and squeezing out the juice
Tamarind is a large evergreen tree that grows in the tropics. It is native to Asian and, probably, to Africa. The tree may grow 75 feet(23 meters) tall. It ha leaves that consist of 10-18 pairs of leaflets and small, pale yellow flowers. The tamarind tree produces brown pods that are 2 to 6 inches(5 to 16 centimeters) long. The pods contain an acidic pulp that may be eaten fresh or used to make jams, sauces, syrups, and drinks. The seeds of the tamarind may be roasted and eaten. The tamarind grown as a shade tree in southern Florida, U.S.A
|nam gok||น้ำก๊อก||Tap Water
Pronounced "roht". A common dish is "sam roht" สามรส, or three flavors — hot, sweet and sour.
|nam cha||น้ำชา||Tea, hot or cold
||nuea san nai||เนื้อสันใน||Tenderloin|
Literally meat inside backbone. The loin is located on both sides of the backbone starting at the shoulder and continuing back to the hind leg. The tenderloin comes from the center cut or the middle section of the loin. The tenderloin is a narrow muscle that runs along the bottom edge of the loin, starting approximately in the middle and extending back to the leg. It is a very tender, lean, and boneless cut, which can be roasted, braised, pan-fried, grilled, or broiled but must not be overcooked. It is sometimes cut into smaller pieces, such as cutlets, medallions and scallops, before cooking. The tenderloin is not always removed as a separate cut and may be cut so that sections are left in the chops or roasts.
|het kon||เห็ดโคน||Termite mushrooms|
Termitomyces albiceps and Termitomyces fuliginosus (also called เห็ดขาไก่, hed kha kai). Hed kon is a popular edible mushroom in Thailand. Hed kon is supposed to be good for the brain and memory. These mushrooms are a symbiotic fungi. They can only exist with the help of termites. In this photograph from Thailand, the sign indicates เห็ดโคนญี่ปุ่น, "hed kon yee-bpoon", or Japanese mushrooms.
|ma khuea pro (makhuea poh)||มะเขือเปราะ||Thai Eggplant|
Solanum melongena, also known as Brinjal, Thai eggplants are small and round and a a creamy white color with green stripes. They are eaten as a fresh vegetable with nam prik, or used in curry and in Gaeng Paa (Jungle Curry) แกงป่า
|bai kaprao (bai graprow, bai ka phrao)||ใบกะเพรา||Thai Holy Basil Leaf|
Ocimum Sanctum. Green with purple reddish tinged leaves, holy basil has a clove-like taste.
|phrik sriracha||พริกศรีราชา||Thai Hot Sauce|
Used like Tabasco to add heat to dishes, but it is less sour with a more sweet, garlic taste. Add this chile sauce to Pad Thai, fried chicken, or fried rice. Also called 'Sot Phrik'. View Additional Information.
|khanom chin||ขนมจีน||Thai Spaghetti Noodles|
Literally "Chinese pastry", kanom jeen is Thai vermicelli made from rice flour.
|yam||ยำ||Thai Spicy Salad|
Literally tossed, mixed together
|phak bung thai||ผักบุ้งไทย||Thai Water Morning Glory, Thai Water Convolvulus|
Ipomoea Aquatica. Thai water convovulus is an annual aquatic plant that spreads its stems on the water surface. The stem is succulent, crisp, green in color and segmented. The leaves are heart-shaped and commonly used in kaeng teop, sour spicy soups, fried with pork, used in yen ta fo and eaten as a fresh vegetable with nam prik.
|phrik ki nu (prik kee noo)||พริกขี้หนู||Thai chiles|
Capsicum minimum, small red or green fiery "bird" or mouse dropping chile. View Additional information
|sak (sahk)||สาก||The pestle of a mortar and pestle|
Good for pounding things! — Also means a "penis", which is also good for pounding things. :)
|kuaitiao sen lek||ก๋วยเตี๋ยวเส้นเล็ก||Thin Rice Noodles|
Resembling spaghetti, these noodles are sold both fresh and dried. The city of Chanthaburi is famous for dried sen lek noodles, which are sometimes called Jantoboon noodles after the nickname for the town.
|hio nam (hiu nam)||หิวน้ำ||Thirsty
Spelled phonetically like the English word, but the thanthakat character, ์, means the consonant is not pronounced.
|kung kuladam||กุ้งกุลาดำ||Tiger Prawn|
Penaeus monodon. It has black and white stripes — I've seen tiger prawns called goong laay, กุ้งลาย, striped prawns. These are giant among Asia prawns. The females grow to over 30 cm (1 foot) long.
|pla nin||ปลานิล||Tilapia||op (awb)||อบ||To bake, roast, broil. To cook in the oven.
||thup||ทุบ||To beat or pound
||khiao||เคี่ยว||To boil down
||chueam||เชื่อม||To boil in syrup|
Boiling in syrup like the dessert dish กล้วยเชื่อม (Bananas boiled in syrup).
|dueat||เดือด||To boil, froth, foam.
||ruam||รวม||To broil meat|
A usage would be thale ruam, ทะเลรวม (broiled seafood).
|sap ||สับ||To chop, mince|
A usage of the word is kratiam sap, กระเทียมสับ (minced garlic), or mu sap, หมูสับ (ground pork).
|chup||ชุบ||To coat (with)|
As in the dish gan chiang pu chup paeng thot, กรรเชียงปูชุบแป้งทอด, which is crab legs (skulls) coated with flour and deep fried.
|prakop ahan||ประกอบอาหาร||To cook or prepare a meal||tat||ตัด||To cut
||lalai||ละลาย||To dissolve or melt.
||kin khao (gin khao)||กินข้าว||To eat food, literally, "eat rice"
||kin (gin)||กิน||To eat or drink
||thot (tot, tawt, tawd, taud, tod, tort)||ทอด||To fry, to fry in deep fat, deep fry
||bup (boop)||บุบ||To grind, pound lightly|
In Thailand, this task is efficiently accomplished with a motar and pestle.
|tak||ตัก||To ladle, to spoon, to scoop up, to dip
||khlao||เคลา||To mix together, roll, knead
||phasom||ผสม||To mix, combine, blend
||soi||ซอย||To pare down; to snip or trim in small amounts, to mince, cut, slice into small pieces
||lok||ลอก||To peel a fruit or vegetable
To peel, to skin, to pare
|rat ||ราด||To pour, cover, top, dress
||brung ahan||ปรุงอาหาร||To prepare food|
To cook food.
|fu||ฟู||To rise, to be fluffy|
Like dough rising — I've also seen a dish called pla dook foo ปลาดุกฟู which was described as a Deep fried catfish sour-hot salad or Yum pla dook foo ยำปลาดุกฟู which was described as a Crispy catfish green mango salad. Shredding the catfish then frying it makes it fluffy and crispy.
|khua (khuaa, krua)||คั่ว||To roast, to pop (corn)
||brung rot||ปรุงรส||To season, flavor
||brung ||ปรุง||To season, mix, prepare, or cook
||han||หั่น||To slice, cut into pieces
To slice, carve or cut
To slice, to cut, to carve
|krong||กรอง||To strain, filter, sift.
It is very common to see "yat sai" ยัดไส้ to indicate "stuffed" as in Pik Kai Yat Sai Kunng (Shrimp Stuffed Chicken Wings) ปีกไก่ยัดไส้กุ้ง, Khai Yat Sai (Omelet) ไข่ยัดไส้, or Phrik Yat Sai (Stuffed Bell Peppers) พริกยัดไส้.
To wrap, as in kai ho bai toei (Chicken wrapped in Pandanus Leaf) ไก่ห่อใบเดย
|khanom pang ping||ขนมปังปิ้ง||Toast
||nam ma khuea thet||น้ำมะเขือเทศ||Tomato juice
||ma khuea thet||มะเขือเทศ||Tomato||nam to nik||น้ำโทนิก||Tonic water|
A very handy word when you need a vodka tonic or "wot-ka to-nik", วอดก้าโทนิก.
Seriola nigrofasciata, Black Banded Trevally
|pla muek lot||ปลาหมึกหลอด||Tube Squid||kha min||ขมิ้น||Tumeric|
Curcuma longa, is a small ginger with brown rhizones. Inside the flesh is bright orange.
"Tuna" is spelled phonetically.
|kaeng (gaeng)||แกง||Typical Thai dish, half-way between a soup and a stew. It may be clear and thin or spicy and thicken with coconut cream.
||nuea luk wua||เนื้อลูกวัว||Veal or calf meat
||nam man puet||น้ำมันพืช||Vegetable Oil|
พืช ("puet") means vegetation or plant in Thai.
||sen mi (sen mee)||เส้นหมี่||Vermicelli Rice Noodles, Thin Lane Noodles|
These noodles are called "may-fun" in Chinese, or "mee hoon" in Malay. Vermicelli rice noodles are excellent pre-soaked in water and added to stir fry dishes. Season with oyster sauce and fish sauce for a quick, inexpensive one-plate meal. These rice flour noodles should not be confused with mung bean vermicelli, which is made with mung bean flour.
Ingredients: Rice flour and water.
|aroi mak ||อร่อยมาก||Very delicious!
||aroi mak mak||อร่อยมากๆ||Very, very delicious!
||phak phai||ผักไผ่||Vietnamese Cilantro|
Polygonum odoratum, also known as Vietnamese mint, Vietnamese coriander, Cambodian mint and hot mint. The Vietnamese name is rau ram, while in Malaysia and Singapore it is called daun kesom or daun laksa (laksa leaf).
|nam som sai chu||น้ำส้มสายชู||Vinegar
||haeo (haew)||แห้ว||Water Chestnut
Neptunia oleracea. Water Mimosa is a popular Thai vegetable that is most often cooked in spicy salads or fried with meats. It is particularly delicious in Gaeng Som soup.
|nam ||น้ำ||Water, liquid, juice|
If you want water to drink, you can't just ask for "water", น้ำ — You need to be specific and ask for nam blao (plain water) น้ำเปล่า, nam duem (drinking water) น้ำดื่ม, or nam yen (cold water) น้ำเย็น
|taeng mo (thangmo)||แตงโม||Watermelon|
Sweet and refreshing, ruby-red chunks of watermelon are an essential part of nearly every fruit platter. In Thailand, pieces of watermelon are often dipped into salt before eating; the delicious juice is also extracted and widely sold as a beverage.
|paeng sali||แป้งสาลี||Wheat flour
As in paeng sali แป้งสาลี which is wheat flour
|kaeo mang kan thai nuea khao||แก้วมังกรไทยเนื้อขาว||White Dragon Fruit|
Dragon Fruit is also known as pitaya, huŏ lóng guŏ, strawberry pear, nanettikafruit or thanh long. Its flesh is eaten raw and is mildly sweet, sometimes likened to that of the kiwi fruit due to a prevalence of sesame-sized, black crunchy seeds.
|het hu nu khao||เห็ดหูหนูขาว||White Jelly Fungus|
Tremella fusiformis. A white jelly fungus, also called Pen Tsao or Silver Ear. These mushrooms are supposed to be good for sperm, semen, and kidney.
|phrik thai khao||พริกไทยขาว||White Peppercorns
||kung chae buai||กุ้งแชบ๊วย||White Prawn|
Penaeus merguiensis. Also known as Banana Prawn, it has a white body with small rust-colored dots. Fully grown, they obtain a length of 20 cm (8 inches) or more, but they are harvested before they reach half that size. The small ones are sorted and sold as กุ้งชีแฮ้. This is the prawn that is found in recipes that just indicate "prawns".
|ngah khao||งาขาว||White Sesame Seeds||hua hom yai||หัวหอมใหญ||White onion
||luk phak chi||ลูกผักชี||Whole Thai Coriander Seeds||mu yang||หมูย่าง||Whole pig roasted over an open fire.
||kuaitiao sen yai||ก๋วยเตี๋ยวเส้นใหญ||Wide Lane Noodles, Rice River Noodles|
Sold both dried and fresh, although the latter form is more popular. When fresh they tend to be rather sticky and need to be separated before cooking.
|rat na, rad na||ราดหน้า||Wide Noodles in Gravy
||chaplu (chaploo, shaploo)||ชะพลู||Wild Pepper, Cha-Plu|
Piper sarmentosum. Sometimes wrongly identified as Piper betle, which doesn't have glossy and tender leaves. The leaves are heart-shaped, light green when young and shiny dark green when mature. The upper side of the leaf is smooth while the underside is somewhat rough. The leaf has a pleasant fragrance and a refreshing taste. I once had it served with laab muu as a wrapper for the minced pork.
|mu pa||หมูป่า||Wild boar
Wild, as in wild boar หมูป่า (mu pa) or wild mushrooms เห็ดป่า (het pa).
Also spelled phonetically like the English word, lao wai, เหลาไวน์. Red wine is lao wai daeng เหลาไวน์แดง, or simply wai daeng, ไวน์แดง. White wine is lao wai khaao, เหลาไวน์ขาว, or simply, wai khao, ไวน์ขาว.
|tua pu||ถั่วพู||Wing Beans||pik||ปีก||Wing|
As in pik kai, ปีกไก่, a chicken wing.
|mai sai sai||ไม่ไส่ไส้||Without intestines :)
||paeng kiao||แป้งเกี๊ยว||Wonton Wrappers|
These wafer-thin wrappers are made from egg and wheat flour. They are available both fresh and frozen.
|kiao (geow, kiow)||เกี๊ยว||Wonton|
Square sheets of wheat dough enclosing pork, boiled in soup stock.
|man ||มัน||Yam, potato|
Also means oil, fat or grease
|kaeng lueang (gaeng lueang)||แกงเหลือง||Yellow Curry Paste
||tao hu lueang||เต้าหู้เหลือง||Yellow Tofu|
Yellow on the outside and white inside.
|mi lueang||หมี่เหลือง||Yellow noodles
||phrik lueang||พริกเหลือง||Yellow pepper
||pla o khrip lueng||ปลาโอครีบเหลือง||Yellowfin Tuna|
|phak khom gaeo ton on||ผักโขมแก้วต้นอ่อน||Young Spinach
Spelled phonetically like the English word.
|priao (briao, priaw, briaw)||เปรี้ยว||fermented; sour; acidic; tart; [of taste] sharp
|Tom Yam Kung (spicy shrimp soup)||99%|
|Kaeng Khiao Wan Kaii (green chicken curry)||85%|
|Pad Thai (fried noodles of Thai style)||70%|
|Pad Kaphrao (meat fried with sweet basils)||52%|
|Kaeng Phet Pet Yang (roast duck curry)||50%|
|Tom Kha Kai (chicken in coconut soup)||47%|
|Yam Neua (spicy beef salad)||45%|
|Mu or Kai sa-te (roast pork or chicken coated with turmeric)||43%|
|Kai Phat Met Mamuang Himmaphan (chicken fried with cashew nuts)||42%|
|Phanaeng (meat in coconut cream)||39%|